10 SES 09 B, Increasing Diversity within Schools: Pedagogy, values and teacher learning
Recent research on physical education and sport at school age has shown considerable interest in understanding the role that sporting experience plays in the development of personal and social skills of young people (Gould & Carson, 2010, Jones &Lavallee, 2009).
The justification for this research focuses on the fact that European Educational Systems throughout history have promoted the transmission of knowledge and the civic and moral formation of children and adolescents (Agúndez, 2015; Jacobs, Knoppers& Webb, 2013), despite this, it is often difficult to implement education in values due to several reasons, such as: plurality of society (in wich different moral doctrines coexist), axiological conceptions, and the role played by families and educational systems, among other aspects (Agúndez, 2015).
Garza and Patiño (2000) identify values as everything one aspires to consider desirable, independently it is considered as a concrete object or as abstract ideals that motivate and guide human activity in a certain direction. Currently, educating in values through physical education means contributing to an integral formation of the individual, since these are considered desired aspects that guide individuals in their lives (Iturbide &Elosua, 2017).
There is a response in favor of Physical Education as an integrating and effective means to transmit knowledge, values and skills for the lives of children and young people (Cancino, 2016, Vargas & Orozco, 2003). However, the evidence has shown that specific methodological designs and approaches are required to achieve optimal personal and social growth through Physical Education (Fraser-Thomas &Côté, 2009). The authentic connection between the development of values in adolescents and Physical Education is determined by the degree to which the experiences lived in the area allow young people to fully activate their potential and fulfill their responsibility in family, academic and social level. In this unique way, Physical Education will play an extraordinary role in the positive development of adolescents, which will help them to improve their quality of life and the others’ lives. But, neither physical activity nor sports, by themselves, can’t develop these values. It is necessary an educational-sport planned intervention, with ethical and moral purposes (Durán, 2006). To reach a full education in values it is necessary to establish a precise methodology with specific objectives, activities and practical strategies that make them operational and adequate evaluation techniques that allow us to confirm whether there has been an improvement in values and attitudes of the students (Jiménez-Martín, 2008, Madrid, Prieto, Samalot, & Gil, 2016). However, Thornberg (2008) explains that in general, physical education teachers are not able to reflect critically about the teaching of education in values. There is a lack of knowledge associated with the teaching-learning strategies should be used to enhance mentioned content. All this may be due to poor university training in education in values.
Under these premises, the objective of this research is to identify the values established by the physical education curriculum, under the perspective of the students of the Degree of Sciences of Physical Activity and Sports of the University of Alicante.
This research has an exploratory approach that uses a quantitative method that describes and analyzes the identification and reflection of the values present in the Organic Law of Education for the Improvement of Educational Quality (LOMCE, 2013). In this study, 82 third-year students from the Physical Activity and Sports Sciences degree analyzed, specifically, Block Five: Cross curricular, belonging to the curriculum of the Physical Education subject in High School. The tool to collect the quantitative data was the adapted value questionnaire of Schwartz (1992) that contains a list of 56 values of which 43 were selected. These items served as a reference for the students, who had to indicate what value was present in the Block Five, mentioned law. Each university student read the Organic Law of Education for the Improvement of Educational Quality, specifically referring to the subject of physical education, once this reading was done, the students pointed out the values that, in their opinion, are mentioned in the education law, based on the questionnaire of Schwartz, and specifically they were asked the following question: • What values do you think should be worked in the subject of physical education, such as indicated by the Organic Law of Education for the Improvement of Educational Quality? The answers were collected by means of the online application of the virtual campus and were analyzed by the Microsoft Excel office program for MAC (© 2015 Microsoft, Version 15.32) that allowed us to calculate the averages of the variables.
The purposes of the Organic Law of Education for the Improvement of Educational Quality are the transmission of knowledge and the assimilation of good personal and social habits understood as civic-moral training (Agúndez, 2015). The deductions obtained by the participants in relation to Block Five: Cross curricular of the Physical Education subject show that students indicate with greater presence the values of Responsibility (97%), Respect (90%), Empathy (82, 6), Collaboration (81.3%), Perseverance (80%), Critical Sense (73.3%), Friendship (70.6%), Initiative (69.3%), Tolerance (68%), Self-control (68 %), Sportsmanship (57.3%) and Creativity (53.3%). In the Organic Law of Education for the Improvement of Educational Quality we can see that values are present in the different levels of concretion; in the preamble of the Law, in the principles of education, in the aims of education, in the key social and civic competences, in the evaluable learning standards, and more specifically in the subject of Social and Civic Values and Religion, emphasizing personal freedom, responsibility, solidarity, tolerance, equality, respect and social justice, among others. In the case of the curriculum corresponding to the subject of Physical Education, the comprehensive training of students through civic and moral development must be achieved by including a specific block of content directly related to cross curricular elements that refer to social inclusion, empathy, collaboration, teamwork, respect, responsibility and tolerance among others. University students identify responsibility, respect, empathy and collaboration coinciding with those indicated by law. These results can be due to the fact that in the curriculum of the subject of Physical Education in Compulsory Secondary Education values are presented in a concrete way. From this experience three workshops were implemented in the classes of the subject in order to work conceptually and reflexively, as well as potential these values in the professional field.
Agúndez, D. (2015). Educarenvalores. Supervisión 21 Revista de Educación eInspección, 37, 1-36. Cancino, J. (2016). Un nuevoparadigma para un futuromássaludable y con valores. Deporteinclusivo, actividadfísicainclusiva y educaciónfísica. RevistaInternacionalde EducaciónInclusiva, 9(2), 69-86. Durán, J. (2006). La actividadfísica y el deporte: Unaoportunidad para transmitirvalores. ValoresenMovimiento. La ActividadFísica y el Deportecomomedio de EducaciónenValores, 45, 9-23. Fraser-Thomas, J. L., &Côté, J. (2009). Understanding adolescents’ positive and negative developmental experiences in sport. The Sport Psychologist, 23, 3-23. Garza, T., &Patiño, S. (2000). Educarenvalores. México D.F.: Editorial Trillas. Gould, D., & Carson, S. (2010). The relationship between perceived coaching behaviors and developmental benefits of high school sports participation. The Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 7, 58-78. Iturbide, L., &Elosua, P. (2017). Los valoresasociados al deporte: Análisis y evaluación de la deportividad. RevistaPsicodidáctica, 22(1), 29-36. Jacobs, F., Knoppers, A., & Webb, L. (2013). Making sense of teaching social and moral skills in physical education. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 18(1), 1-14. Jiménez-Martín, P. J. (2008). Manual de estrategias de intervenciónenactividadfísica, deporte y valores. Madrid: Editorial Síntesis. Jones, M. I., &Lavallee, D. (2009). Exploring the life skills needs of British adolescent athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 159-167. Ley Orgánica 8/2013 del 9 de diciembre para la mejora de la calidadeducativa. Boletínoficial del Estado nº 295 del 10 de diciembre de 2013. Madrid, P., Prieto, A., Samalot, A., & Gil, P. (2016). Evaluación de unapropuestaextraescolar de conductasapropiadaseneducaciónfísica y deportiva. Retos. NuevasTendenciasenEducaciónFísica, Deportey Recreación,30, 36-42. Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 1-65). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Thornberg, R. (2008). The lack of professional knowledge in values education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(7), 1791-1798. Vargas, P., & Orozco, R. (2003). La importancia de la educaciónfísicaen el currículum escolar. Revista Intercedes, 5(7), 119-130.
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