18 SES 03, Ability and Assessment in Physical Education
From birth, the human being incorporates basic patterns of movements such as rolling, crawling, walking in quadruped and basic motor skills such as running, jumping, climbing, grabbing and manipulating, called locomotive phylogenetic activities (Vega, 2015). In this sense, motor development refers to the continuous process, related to changes in movement that occur with age, as well as the limitations or factors that interact in the individual, such as the environment (Clark, 2007; Hardy et al., 2012; Haywood & Getchell, 2014). Motor acquisition is not a product of spontaneous generation, it is based on previous motor controls that are completed, modified or specialized and that evolve from disorder to order.
As we have mentioned previously, several factors that may influence positively or negatively are involved in the development of motor development; the school is one of these factors and is found in the microsystem proposed by Bronfenbrenner (1979). It is one of the closest environments of the child where interpersonal relationships and learning processes take place. Therefore, Primary Education is for many children the beginning of a formalized and systematic educational activity that aims to strengthen cognitive, social, affective and motor development of the child (Herazo, Domínguez, & Zota, 2009, Rivadeneyra & Sicilia, 2004).
One of the objectives of Physical Education in Primary, indicated by the Organic Law of Education for the Improvement of Educational Quality, is the development of basic motor skills, which are common for all subjects and serve as a basis for learning other specific motor skills. This is in congruence with the Smith Scheme Theory, which proposes that what we store in memory sample are not specific motor patterns that serve to perform a single motor task, but generalized motor programs that guide the execution of new movements with which they are familiar (Batalla, 2000). That is to say, Primary Education should facilitate and favour the learning of basic motor schemes that are capable of being transferred to other more specific and complex motor skills (Herazo et al., 2009; Rivadeneyra & Sicilia, 2004; Ruiz, 1997), such as the one performed in sports, in some work activities and in daily activities.
According to Ruiz (1987), motor skills are classified into basic motor skills of locomotion, motor skills of management and mastery of the body in space, and motor skills of manipulation and reception of mobiles and objects. In the framework in question, we focus in rolliongs. Fernández, Gardoqui, and Sánchez (2007, p.22) affirm that "rollings fit within the group of basic motor skills, and their main characteristic is the management and control of the body in space". Rollings are movements that imply a rotation through the theoretical axes that divides the human body, wich are the vertical, the front-rear and the cross (Sánchez, 1990). Batalla (2000) states that there is a great variety of execution of the rollings and therefore it are difficult to make a technical description of them. However there are some basic considerations in common to all of the rollings, such as the displacement of body mass, the grouping-extension, maintenance of balance, and spatial reorientation.
For the above mentioned reasons, the objective of our research is to know and analyze the degree of acquisition of the motor skill of the rolling at the end of the Primary Education stage and to establish the differences according to the center of study.
In this study, 75 schoolchildren (33 boys and 42 girls), aged between 11 and 12 years old, voluntarily participated. The students belong to three centers of Compulsory Primary Education of the number seven education district, of the city of Alicante (Spain). Of the three schools, one was public (CP), and two were private schools (CPR1 and CPR2). The selection of the schools was carried out by means of an accidental non-probabilistic sampling for convenience and availability. Both the parents of the students and the management of each school gave their consent for the completion of this study. The instrument used to measure the ability of the rollings (front-rear and cross axis) was the Scale for the assessment of basic motor skills (Fernández et al., 2007). This scale is composed of a dichotomous list of motor tasks (displacement, mobile management and roolings), each task can be assessed with two alternatives: adequate or not adequate. Specifically, the assessment of the motor skill of the rolling includes 8 items or tasks to be performed. The protocol of application of the scale was the following: 1.- Each task is explained before asking for its execution, in order every can understand it. 2.- The order of application of the motor tasks is the same as that expressed in the task list. If the task is successful, number one was written down, otherwise number 0 is written down. 3.- In case the first fails, a second attempt is allowed. If after failing a task, two other consecutive tasks are failed, subject finishes his trials. In order to analyze and establish the differences between the variables of the study, the statistical analysis performed has been invariant and multivariate, using the application of the SPSS 23.0 program. The technique used was the Anova statistic in order to compare means.
The obtained results indicate that the levels of acquisition of the turn in the total of the sample are four: low (18.7%), medium-low (33.3%), medium (36%) and medium-high (12%). When segregating the sample by school, we appreciate that there is a low percentage of students who achieve the medium-high level in this motor skill (CPR14.0%, CPR21.3% and CP6.7%). The average level is reached by almost half of the students of the CPR1 (42.3%), of the CPR2 (40%), and almost one third of the students of the CP (25.0%). Approximately half of CPR2 students (48.0%) have a medium-low level, unlike CPR1 (38.5%) and CP (12.5%). Finally, approximately half of the students in the CP school (41.7%) have a low level, unlike the CPR1 (7.2%) and the CPR2 (8.3%). There are no significant differences between schools. In the case of the rolling, our results show medium and medium-low levels, findings that differ from the study by Montesdeoca, Cabrera, Ruiz, and Barrera (2010), where a low level appears in this motor competence. Fear and motor incompetence were the causes that justified the low level, factors that also occurred in our study. As these authors point out, it would be necessary to analyze the type of content that is being worked on in the school environment. On the other hand, Ávalos (2013) evidences that Physical Education teachers include minimally the contents related to the rolling due to the lack of disposition of the students as a consequence of the fear that students show or lack of previous experiences in this kind of skills. The current sedentary life condition contributes to reduce the natural practice of these skills (Duncan & Stanley, 2012; Duncan, Stanley, & Leddington, 2013; Laukkanen, Pesola, Havu, Sääkslahti, & Finni, 2014) and children are 40% less active than 30 years ago (Rattigan & Biren, 2007).
Ávalos, M. A. (2013). Las habilidades gimnasticas y acrobáticas: causas y condicionantes de un aprendizaje en riesgo (Tesis doctoral). Universidad de Alicante. Batalla, A. (2000). Habilidades motrices. Barcelona : INDE. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). Ecology of human development. Boston: Havard University Press. Clark, J. (2007). On the problem of motor skill development. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 78(5), 39-44. Duncan, M. J., & Stanley, M. (2012). Functional movement is negatively associated with weight status and positively associated with physical activity in British primary school children. Journal of Obesity, 1-5. doi:10.1155/2012/697563 Duncan, M., Stanley, M., & Leddington, S. (2013).The association between functional movement and overweight and obesity in British primary school children. Sport Science & Rehabilitations, 1-8. doi: 10.1186/2052-1847-5-11 Férnandez, E., Gardoqui, M., & Sánchez, F. (2007). Escala para la evaluación de las habilidades motrices básicas. Madrid: Stock Cero S. A. Hardy, L., Reinter-Reynolds, T., Espinel, P., Zask, A., & Okely, A. (2012).Prevalence and correlates of low fundamental movement skill competency in children. Pediatric, 130(2), 390-398. Haywood, K., & Getchell, N. (2014). Life span motor development. United States: Human Kinetcs. Herazo, Y., Domínguez, A., & Zota, I. (2009). Estadios de los patrones motores fundamentales en una escuela regular. Fisioterapia, 32(2), 66-72. Laukkanen, A., Pesola, A., Havu, M., Sääkslahti, A., & Finni, T. (2014). Relationship between habitual physical activity and gross motor skills is multifaceted in 5‐to 8‐year‐old children. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 24(2), 102-110. Montesdeoca, R., Cabrera, D., Ruiz, G., & Barrera, H. (2010). Comparativa de las habilidades motrices básicas entre tenistas de 10 a 12 años. AIESEP. A Coruña, 26-29 de Octubre. Rattigan, P., & Biren, G. (2007). Battling obesity in K-12 learners from an exercise physiology perspective. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 8(78), 34-39. Rivadeneyra, M. L., & Sicilia, A. (2004). La percepción espacio-temporal y la iniciación a los deportes de equipo en primaria. Barcelona: INDE. Ruiz, L. M. (1987) Desarrollo motor y actividades físicas. Madrid: Gymnos. Ruiz, L. M. (1997). Deporte y aprendizaje. Procesos de adquisición y desarrollo de habilidades. Madrid: Visor. Sánchez, F. (1990). Didáctica de la educación física y el deporte. Madrid: Gymnos. Vega, L. (2015). Asociación entre sobrepeso, obesidad y nivel de habilidades motrices básicas en niños escolares de educación primaria de Alicante (Tesis doctoral). Universidad de Alicante.
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