33 SES 04, Migration, Ethnic-minority Girls and Education
This paper presents some of the results identified in the project END-TRAFFICKING: Changes and social innovation for the prevention and reduction of trafficking of women for sexual exploitation (Puigvert, 2014-2016) funded by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness form the Spanish Government. According to the International Labor Organization (ILO, 2012) human trafficking more than 4,5 million of people in the work are trafficked. Women constitute the largest collective of sex trafficking victims (95%) mainly the young women. 58% of victims are between 12 and 24 years old (Eurostat, 2015). The EU strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2013-2016 considers children and young adults as particularly vulnerable groups.
This situations have affected the development of European and state policy initiatives to eradicate this problematic (European Comission, 2012), as de Protocolo de Palermo (ONU, 2000). This policies also are coordinated with NGOs and women’s social organizations (United Nations, 2016). At the same time civil society organize themselves to act against sex trafficking.
In recent years research about trafficking, and specifically about children and young women, have increased in order to combat this problematic. This issue appears as a priority in some of the last European research calls in the 7th Framework Programme and the Horizon 2020. The literature review show some causes of trafficking like poverty, social inequalities, lack of human rights, etc. At the same time it is highlighted diverse risk factors directly linked with gender issues and with education. Some of this risk factors are: lack of access to education and education inequalities, failure in women and infancy protection, and gender inequalities. These factors increase vulnerability of young women and children (Hodge, 2008; Kumar, 2013; Logan, Walker & Hunt, 2009; Wilson, Critelli, & Rittner, 2015; Yea, 2012) The social interactions and relationships are also being studied in relation to the recruitment of young women and children (Kumar & Salas, 2008; Miller et al, 2007; Puigvert, 2013-214; Van Liempt, 2011). Nevertheless most of research is focused in the economic, social and health consequences of trafficking and the main factors to promote it. But it is necessary also to go deeper in issues like the actions to prevent recruitment, especially in young women and children.
The project END-TRAFFICKING: Changes and social innovation for the prevention and reduction of trafficking of women for sexual exploitation (2014-2016) aimed to identify risk factors to be sex-trafficked and prevention elements. In this paper we will focus in how the educational segregation or inclusion can be a prevention element.
The project was devolped following the Communicative Methodology of research (Puigvert, Gómez & Flecha, 2011). This methodology was selected because of the orientation in identifying exclusionary elements and transformative elements of the studied problematic. It was also mainly selected by their orientation to include the voices of the most vulnerable people in the research, stablishing an egalitarian dialogue between science and the real problem. The methodology was structure in two main blocks, first an extensive scientific literature review was conducted, and second fieldwork was developed. In relation to literature review the research team reviewed the scientific databases as Web of Sciences, Sociological Abstracts, Journal citation report, etc. Different European research was also reviewed. At the same time data from national organizations, institutions, NGO’s, associations, were revised. Complementarily policies and strategic plans were analyzed. In relation to fieldwork, we used 3 techniques: in-depth interview, communicative daily live stories, communicative discussion groups. Specifically 17 in depth interviews were conducted with professionals who work directly with victims, entities representatives, and spokespersons of organizations that are implementing actions to prevent sex-trafficking. 18 communicative daily life stories were also conducted, 6 with women and young women who have been victims of sex-trafficking; 6 with women and young women who has been potentially victim of trafficking, and 6 with relatives/friends of victims of sex-trafficking. Finally 9 communicative discussion groups were conducted: 2 with professionals who work with victims of sex-trafficking, 2 with entities representatives, 3 with young women victims of trafficking and 2 with relative/friends (trusting members) of victims of trafficking.
While overcoming sex-trafficking implies important changes in social inequalities, economy and gender inequalities in society, it has been also identified the overcoming of education inequalities as a possible prevention element. Educational inclusion is identified as a preventive element in for example the prevention of recruitment. It is necessary to pose this inclusive education without naivety, being awareness that we’re entering in a very complex problematic where a lot of factors with more power than education are acting. But at the same time, from education is necessary and useful to act. Gender equality in education is linked to gender equality in society, and the sex-trafficking, a part of other factors that promote it, is also fruit of gender inequalities, in fact it is one of the more serious gender inequality and it is considered as gender violence in our societies. Gender sensitive teaching in sex-trafficking is also identified as necessary because many girls’ victims of sex-trafficking are attending school while they’re being recruited. So, the teaching awareness against sex-trafficking and the skills to identify it in their students, is crucial. Community sensitive in this issue jointly with an inclusive education that overcome education inequalities and gender inequalities are key issues identified to discuss about.
European Comission. (2012). Estrategia de la UE para la erradicación de la trata de seres humanos 2012-2016 .Comunicación de la Comisión al Consejo y al Parlamento Europeo relativa a la lucha contra la trata de seres humanos, la explotación sexual de la infancia y la pornografía infantil (COM/2000/0854). Retrieved from https://www.policia.es/trata/pdf/lexuriserv.pdf Eurostat. (2015). Trafficking in human beings. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/antitrafficking/sites/antitrafficking/files/eurostat_report_on_trafficking_in_humanbei ngs_-_2015_edition.pdf Gomez, A., Puigvert, L., Flecha, R. (2011) Critical Communicative Methodology: Informing Real Social Transformation Through Research, Qualitative Inquiry, 17(3), p. 235-245. Hodge, D. R., & Lietz, C. A. (2008). Sexual trafficking in the United States: A domestic problem with transnational dimensions. Social Work. 53, 143–152. ILO (2012). Global Estimate of Forced Labour. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---declaration/documents/publication/wcms_182004.pdf Kumar, A., & Salas, A. (2008). Some theoretical considerations on the trafficking of women in the context of globalization. Revista De Ciencias Sociales, 14(2), 220-239. Kumar, S. (2013), Exploring the Rural-Agrarian Linkages of Human Trafficking: A Study of the Indian Punjab. International Migration, 51 (4), 116–129. Logan, T.K., Walker, R. & Hunt, G. (2009). Understanding Human Trafficking in the United States. Trauma Violence Abuse, 10 (1), 3-30. Miller, E., Decker, M. R., Silverman, J. G., & Raj, A. (2007). Migration, sexual exploitation, and women's health: A case report from a community health center. Violence Against Women, 13(5), 486-497. ONU (2000). Protocolo de las Naciones Unidas para Prevenir, Reprimir y Sancionar la Trata de Personas, Especialmente Mujeres y Niños. Italia: Naciones Unidas. Puigvert, L. (2013-2014). RTD Life trajectories that move away or bring closer to the trafficking processes of sexual exploitation. Spanish Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. Puigvert, L. (2014-2016). RTD END-TRAFFICKING: Changes and social innovations for the prevention and reduction of trafficking of women for sexual exploitation. Spanish Ministry of Economy and Commpetivness. Van Liempt, I. (2011). Different geographies and experiences of ‘assisted’ types of migration: A gendered critique on the distinction between trafficking and smuggling. Gender, Place and Culture, 18(02), 179-193. Wilson, B.; Critelli, F.M., & Rittner, B.A. (2015). Transnational responses to commercial sexual exploitation: A comprehensive review of interventions. Womens Studies International Forum, 48, 71-80. Yea, S (2012). “Shades of grey”: spaces in and beyond trafficking for Thai women involved in commercial sexual labour in Sydney and Singapore. Gender, place and culture 19(1), 42-60.
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