28 SES 09 A, New vocabularies for investigating education policy and practice
Concerning education we find contradictory developments. We observed an enormous educational expansion as well as we witness the emergence of educational poverty and social exclusion of people effected. Considering this background the aim of the contribution is, to develop and empirically analyse a concept that allows answering the research question, whether from a holistic perspective and in the long run we can observe social progress or regress in the fields of and fields influenced by education. Therefor the research question in detail is: If we take into account the current situation and developments in the European educational systems like educational expansion or inclusion and exclusion of disadvantaged groups on the one hand side and the situation as well as the developments influenced by education like integration and exclusion from the labour market or democratic participation depending on educational status on the other hand side, can we in sum and in which of the fields observe social progress or social regress and how differ European countries concerning this conclusion?
To allow analyses concerning this research question a theoretical concept of social progress in and by education has to be developed first. Building upon theories of justice (Rawls 1975, Mill 1976, Sen 2010, Nussbaum 1997, Honneth 1992, Fraser 1995), equality of opportunity (Coleman 1967, Roemer 1998) and progress (Stiglitz et al. 2009, Porter et al. 2015, Richardson et al. 2016) the concept developed includes 8 dimensions of social progress in and by education spanning from equity, educational poverty and capabilities/competences to participation, recognition and well-being. Based on the theories mentioned the concept also provides theoretical criteria how to evaluate developments that can or could be observed in these dimensions. The concept for instance builds upon the hypothesis that decreasing social inequalities can be referred to as social progress.
The eight dimensions of social progress in and by education developed are operationalised by 26 indicators. These indicators are chosen and built to represent the theoretically derived dimensions they are related to closely but also the availability of data influences their construction. The proportion of young people from a low educated family background reaching tertiary educational diploma is an example for an indicator operationalising the social-progress-dimension of “Equity”. This specific indicator is calculated using EU-SILC 2011 data. Above that analyses build upon several additional data sets like the Labour Force Survey, OECD-Pisa-Data, the European Social Survey and the European Census. All these indicators are calculated empirically manifold: They are calculated concerning their actual status and also concerning their development over time. As a key element most of the indicators are analysed in comparison of 29 European countries showing different structures of progress and regress. Besides that also results for disadvantaged groups (concerning gender, social origin and migration status) are calculated because as mentioned above the concept developed builds upon the hypothesis, that social progress can be observed, when social differences decrease. In order to also allow a summative answer to the research question the methodology of “Composite Indicators” (OECD 2008) is used, to calculate a social-progress-score for each country.
The findings not only tell a story of educational success. Only a limited number of indicators show social progress others even social regress. For instance the odd ratio for belonging to the low achievers groups not only equals a five-time risk for pupils with a poor socioeconomic background but also grew over time in many European countries. Even indicators showing social progress reveal a long way to go, since social disadvantages and inequalities still are enormous. From an overall perspective dimensions focused on the educational system in many cases show progressive developments whereas the dimensions covering consequences of education in society point in a regressive direction. In international comparison developments work out differently for different countries. Besides booming countries concerning their development starting from a low level of social progress (e.g. Portugal) also continuous improving countries starting from a high level (e.g. Ireland) can be found. On the other hand side countries are situated showing a decreasing trend either from a high (e.g. Finland) or even from a low level of development (e.g. Austria). All together progressive and regressive elements often are in balance and therefore do not allow a final judgement. But growing exclusion of migrants and low qualified people demand policy measures ensuring that also the most vulnerable find their place in the societal elevator (Beck 1985) and will not be left behind.
Beck U. (1986): Risikogesellschaft. Auf dem Weg in eine andere Moderne, Suhrkamp: Frankfurt/M. Coleman J. S. (1967): The Concept of Equality of Educational Opportunity. Paper prepared for a conference on the U.S. Office of Education report on Equality of Educational Opportunity, Harvard, October 21, 1967. Fraser N. (1995): From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a “Post-Socialist” Age’, New Left Review 212, S. 68–93. Honneth A. (1992): Kampf um Anerkennung. Zur moralischen Grammatik sozialer Konflikte, Suhrkamp: Frankfurt/Main. Mill J. S. (1976): Der Utilitarismus, Reclam: Stuttgart. Nussbaum M. C. (1997): Capabilities and Human Rights, in: Fordham Law Review, Vol. 66/2, S. 273-300. OECD (2008): Handbook on Constructing Composite Indicators. Methodology and User Guide, Paris. Porter M.E., Stern S., Green M. (2015): Social Progress Index 2015, Social Progress Imperative, Washington. Rawls J. (1975): Eine Theorie der Gerechtigkeit, Suhrkamp: Frankfurt. Richardson H. S., Schokkaert E., Bartolini S., Brennan G., Casal P., Clayton M., Jaeggi R., Jayal N. G., Kelbessa W:, Satz D. (2016): Social Progress … A Compass, in: IPSP-International Panel on Social Progress, Chapter 2, Commenting Platform [https://comment.ipsp.org/chapter/chapter-2-social-progress-compass; 09.12.2016] Roemer J. E. (1998): Equality of Opportunity, Harvard University Press: Cambridge. Sen A. K. (2010): Die Idee der Gerechtigkeit, C.H.Beck: München. Stiglitz J.E., Sen A., Fitoussi J.P. (2009): The Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress Revisited. Reflections and Overview, OFCE - Centre de recherche en économie de Sciences Po, Nr. 33-2009, Paris.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
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