10 SES 02 C, Motivations and Considerations on Becoming a Teacher
The teacher education is since the middle of the 2000s worldwide influenced through the PISA studies. Besides this, the teacher education research aims on formulation and measurement of teacher competencies as well as the strengthening of the academic culture and the self-reflection competencies (Herzer, 2013) against the background of an evidence-based control of the education systems (Valcke, 2013). Parallel to this development the Bologna process concentrated the attention of the teacher education research on the creation of the courses of studies. Currently we find regarding to the teacher education a re-orientation on other subjects like integration / inclusion (European agency, 2012), interculturality (Auernheimer, 2015), migration (Wegner/Dirim, 2016) as well as a more practically oriented teacher education (Grimmet, 2014). This re-orientation of the teacher education against the background of quickened social-social changes happens and is not based on theoretical considerations, but moderated from political and practical needs (e.g. see the law „La buona scuola“ in Italy, 2015). Hence, it is necessary to analyze, to compare and to value systematically the changed developments and the structures of the current teacher education.
Since middle of the 2000s the teacher education is examined increasingly from an international perspective, e.g., by Sigrid Blömeke (2006) with a study to the structure of the teacher education in eight countries. A large part of the studies to the teacher education and teacher professionalization refers to changed demands for the teaching staffs, new challenges, the change of the teacher profession (Terhart, 2011), on the identification of teacher competencies (Kunter et al., 2011). Other authors like Hattie (2013) or Zhu & Zeichner (2012) have their focus on the quality of teaching staffs as well as the social and (inter) cultural perspectives in the teacher education. These studies perform the analysis of the changed demands for future teaching staffs and the development of the quality of the school instructions. The interest of supranational organizations regarding the teacher education, e.g. of the European Union, aims on the analyses of international macro data and descriptive system comparisons. However, these descriptive educational reports at institutional level as well as the psychological competence models and other studies lack an educational-scientific theory formation to the teacher education. Thus, Blömeke determines that: „Their borders reach these studies if is asked for complicated system types and their connection to socio-cultural contexts. This deficit implied that no internationally sustainable model is given which makes the teacher education accessible to empiric analyses.” Blömeke, 2006, S. 394.) There is still the question of a validation of these results on more systems of the teacher education: „For other countries, than the here examined, the founded typologies and connections represent only a system of hypotheses which must be examined on taller samples.“ (Blömeke, 2006, p. 413.)
At this point, my research project starts and achieves a contribution to the theory formation. This is performed while the comparisons of the approaches of the teacher education lead to new knowledge on a systematic level. Following preliminary works, e.g. the explorative study of Blömeke (2006), an advancement of the theory formation is carried out based on international comparisons. The study limits itself on the university education of primary school teachers (and kindergarten teachers) to sharpen with it the scientific focus and to consider the specific features of the Free University Bolzano.
How is the teacher education structured and organized in the international (European) context ?
How can the scientific research methodology as well as the existing theory formation to teacher education can be strengthened and developed?
The sample is planned in an European context. The countries Italy (within the province of Bozen/South Tirol), Germany, Finland, and the United Kingdom (U.K) belong to the research sample. The choice criteria for the research sample are the access to the field, to the data of the educational monitoring, the contribution of these countries to the teacher education in Europe and worldwide as well as a comparable tradition under availability of diversity of the systems of the teacher education. Italy was chosen because of the homogeneous structure of the teacher education as well as a high centralization. Italy is with this characteristic typically for the southern and eastern countries of Europe. Provinz-Bozen/South Tirol is included because of the special autonomy rights and the named specific features of the teacher education. Germany stands for the Central-European country with heterogeneous structure in the teacher education and a low centralization. Finland was selected on behalf for the Northern countries with high centralization and strong influence on the European discourse of the teacher education. The United Kingdom was selected as a typical example of the Western-European states with a distinctive domestic competition in the teacher education as well as a high significance of the education system in European and non-European countries. To collect the empirical data as well as to collect the institutional data for the documentation analyses about the study programmes and the indicators I use contacts to me well-known scientists in the selected countries. Objectives: Identify basic questions of the teacher education and assign education-related solutions Analysis, comparison and assessment of the teacher education approaches of different countries Draw conclusions and make recommendations for the development of the structures, organization and curricula for the teacher education Develop the theory formation and the research methodology to the teacher education Research methods: Analysis of the education systems by literature and documents analysis Analyses of empiric studies, the use of data from the educational reports of the countries and by self-collected data based on questionnaires and interviews (combined qualitative and quantitative methods) Expert interviews
Expected outcomes: Data material with an overview and a comparison of the country-specific approaches to the teacher education in the field of primary education. Specific characteristics and prioritization of the teacher education against the background of the quickened social developments, the implementation of BA and MA courses of studies at the universities as well as the competence orientation in the teacher education. The study is a comparison of international approaches and models of the teacher education by creation of relationships between the objectives and guidelines (normative dimension) and data material (empirical dimension). New knowledge can be expected about the characteristics of the compared approaches of the teacher education as well as conclusions and recommendations how can be developed the teacher education and the teacher professionalization.
Blömeke, S. (2004). Handbuch Lehrerbildung. [Bad Heilbrunn]: Klinkhardt. Blömeke, S. (2006). Struktur der Lehrerausbildung im internationalen Vergleich: Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung zu acht Ländern. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 52(3), 393–416. Bucci, S. (2000). Professionalità e formazione universitaria degli insegnanti: Contributi per un'analisi comparativa. Problemi della formazione. Roma: Armando. Domović, V., Gehrmann, S., Helmchen, J., Krüger-Potratz, M., & Petravić, A. (Eds.). (2013). Lernen für Europa - Berichte und Materialien: Vol. 2. Europäische Lehrerbildung. Annäherung an ein neues Leitbild: Berichte aus West- und Südosteuropa (1. Aufl.). Münster: Waxmann Verlag GmbH. Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (Ed.). (2015). The teaching profession in Europe: Practices, perceptions, and policies. Eurydice Report. Brussels: European Commission. Engvall, R. P. (1997). The professionalization of teaching: Is it truly much ado about nothing? / Robert P. Engvall. Lanham, London: University Press of America. Engvall, R. P. (1997). The professionalization of teaching: Is it truly much ado about nothing? / Robert P. Engvall. Lanham, London: University Press of America. Gehrmann, S. et al. (Eds.). (2015). Bildungskonzepte und Lehrerbildung in europäischer Perspektive. Bildung in Europa - Bildung für Europa: Vol. 2. Münster [u.a.]: Waxmann. Grimmett, H. (2014). The practice of teachers' professional development: A cultural-historical approach. Professional learning: volume 16. Rotterdam, Boston: Sense Publishers. Helsper, W. (Ed.). (2011). Zeitschrift für Pädagogik : Beiheft: Vol. 57. Pädagogische Professionalität. Weinheim [u.a.]: Beltz. Herzer, G. (2014). Zur Gestaltung der erziehungswissenschaftlichen Lernbegleitung: Ansätze der erziehungswissenschaftlichen Methodenlehre. In K. Kleinespel (Ed.), Ein Praxissemester in der Lehrerbildung. Konzepte, Befunde und Entwicklungssperspektiven am Beispiel des Jenaer Models. (pp. 143–204). Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt, Julius. Kleinespel, K. (Ed.). (2014). Ein Praxissemester in der Lehrerbildung: Konzepte, Befunde und Entwicklungssperspektiven am Beispiel des Jenaer Model. Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt, Julius. Krolak-Schwerdt, S., Glock, S., & Böhmer, M. (2014). Teachers' professional development: Assessment, training, and learning. The Future of Education Research: volume 03. Rotterdam: SensePublishers. LEGGE 13 luglio 2015, n. 107. La buona scuola. Gazetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana, La Camera dei deputati ed il Senato della Repubblica 15.07.2015. Terhart, E., Bennewitz, H., & Rothland, M. (Eds.). (2014). Handbuch der Forschung zum Lehrerberuf. Münster, Westf: Waxmann. Valcke, M. (2013) “Evidence-Based Teaching, Evidence-Based Teacher Education” (Quality of Teachers and Quality of Teacher Education). In: Zhu, X., & Zeichner, K. M. (2013). Preparing teachers for the 21st century. New frontiers of educational research. (pp. 53-66). Heidelberg: Springer. Zhu, X., & Zeichner, K. M. (2013). Preparing teachers for the 21st century. New frontiers of educational research. Heidelberg: Springer.
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