04 SES 09 B, Developing Children’s Literacy in an Inclusive Environment
Theoretical framework and research questions:
The research is based on the secondary analysis of a longitudinal study data base from a cross-national literacy project “Cross-linguistic comparison of Learning and Teaching to spell and read" during the years 2010 to 2015 in which the Universities of Bozen-Bolzano, Eastern Finland and Justus Liebig Gießen were included. The participants of the current study are 324 Finnish primary school pupils in 21 classes, 270 German primary school children in 13 classes and 162 elementary school pupils from North Italy in 10 classes (considering the German school for the historical minority). In this comparative study, 766 pupils were tested in literacy-development on seven test periodes at grade 1°, 2° and 4°. In parallel to the developement of literacy process (reading and writing), tested with standardized precedures in each conuntry (ALLU, ELFE 1-6 DERET 1-2, 3-4), we sampled ohter factors like the teacher’s didactic and diagnostic methods, interviewing them in all phases of the research project. The teachers were asked: ”who of the pupils do you notice, what do you notice and what do you do for the pupils”. We asked the teacher to answer only regarding to the children with not certificated educational special needs, trying to find out which intervention stratecy they apply. For the teacher’s answers were build categories and translations for the comparison of the declarations in each country. In the focus of the secondary analysis were all the pupils with low reading (not writing) results (5-15% of the result in the reading tests at each testing point), considering them “pupils at risk”. In the second step, we tried to find a correlation between the teacher notices and the weak readers.
The research question was therefore: get all students with low reading result the indispensable support to reach a good literacy competence? Are there some pupils that are not noticed (or named) as particularly “weak readers” by the teachers? In addiction we investigated the literature regarding the a) role of the traditional inclusive school system, the experiences and best practices for inclusion, b) the kind of support is aspected to be provided (institutional and oragnisational), c) which competences are in the focus in the (academically) teacher training.
Assumption: according to the OECD – programs for international assessments like PISA and PIAAC being able to read (and write) in an efficient manner, is one of the key-competences that seems to influence the entire school carrier already on a level at the primary school. ‚Early intervention seems to be the most important common feature in effective public policies to build human capital. An investment made while a person is young pays repeated benefits over a lifetime… (Harms, 2004); Social exclusion related to school failure (Frabboni, 2012) is a well-known problem, that has not only didactical implications, but primarily pedagogical effects, that determinates the output and the quality of an educational system of a country and its inclusive attitude.
The research bases on a data set collected from an international study about literacy of a sample of pupils of elementary schools. The participants of this study are 324 Finnish primary school pupils in 21 classes, 270 German primary school children in 13 classes and 162 elementary school pupils from Northern Italy in 10 classes (considering the German school for the historical minority). The literacy process (reading and writing) were tested with standardized precedures in each conuntry (ALLU, ELFE 1-6 DERET 1-2, 3-4). For the qualitative part, we interviewed collectively 40 teachers in all school years in the three countries. The notices of the teachers were categorized and summarized in the following sets: language problems, attention problems, motivation, memory problems, behavioral problem, writing problems, reading comprehension problems, phonological awareness, other noticeable problems. For the analysis of the literature, we reviewed the publications in the time lapse 2010-2018, focusing on official school issues form each country, school curricula, teacher training curricula and noted authors in the pedagogical and didactical field for inclusive theories.
The number of pupils, that were not noticed/ or named as weak readers in all seven test periods is relative high: from 766 pupils in all three countries (until the end of the primary school) concerns 16 pupils. It becomes, in consequence, a matter of the inlcusive education system how this pupils can persist in the school system with a big lack in a cultural competence like reading at the end of the primary schooling.
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