02 SES 14 B, Guidance and Mentoring in VET
Deep and uncertain transformations in society's information and knowledge nowadays have led to a new stage characterized by a unique neoliberal thought in which new forms of relationship and citizens participation have been developed (Castell, 1997). These changes, which affect the different areas, such as, work, society and family, are characterized, at the same time, by a growing sense of social fragility that give rise to situations of social exclusion. This situation is reflected at the educative institutions where different realities converge.
For this reason, educational institutions have to recover their educative role in the sense of promoting the development of a critical, autonomous and participatory citizenship with its environment, while at the same time pursuing the compensation of inequalities and equal opportunities for all citizens. The educational community must respond to the inclusion of the needs are raised by the students, the family and the educational and social institutions (Cardús, 2001; Puigdellivol, 2007; Martín Bris & Gairín Sallán, 2007). The demands of the institution, the diversity of students and the need to reach all this population, constitute a challenge that requires, to respond to the new challenges that are pointed out, resources, training and specific advice.
This reality requires the transformation of educational institutions from a compensatory approach. This task is not only a change of curriculum or change in school task, but also involves a change of philosophy, methodological strategies and the structural organization of educational institutions (Santana Vega, 2010; Torrents, Merino, García & Valls, 2018).
One of the main purposes of education in Spain is the integral education of individuals. Therefore, the Organic Law of Education (LOE, 2006) and its subsequent homonymous Organic Law for the Improvement of the Quality of Education (LOMCE, 2013) establish that the Spanish educational system is geared towards achieving "full development of personality and of the abilities of the students "(article 2). This conception refers to two complementary processes: personal development and the process of social insertion (Santana Vega, 2010). Given this horizon, educational and professional guidance is assumed as one of the fundamental principles on which educational action should be based. The subject needs information on educational, professional and occupational alternatives that offers the environment to face the process of decision making.
The guiding task is at the service of education, so the specific needs of the educational institution and its constituent elements will be addressed by the counsellor, understanding that it is extremely difficult to define a single intervention model (Cobos Cedillo, 2010). However, a special sensitivity to changes in demands and the needs of the community that must be answered from this new departmental structure is necessary (Cobos Cedillo, 2010).
This study focuses on analysing whether the lines of action undertaken in these departments provide an adequate response to the needs are raised by the teachers, facilitating and helping them to overcome possible difficulties of knowledge and access to the workplace. As well as, advising them in the decision-making process and in the elaboration of their professional project.
Educational guidance is assumed as part of the set of factors that favour the quality of teaching and is one of the principles that should serve the educational activity. We start with a non-experimental, descriptive and correlational empirical research design; the aim is to know the view of the protagonists of the educational orientation within the framework of working with the classroom group in educational environments located in the areas at risk of exclusion of Cordoba (Spain). The guidance with the class group involves the educational community in a collaborative work. The purpose of this function implies: • Offering information to the student community. • Accompany the students to explore the consequences of their actions. • Promoting learning to set and achieve personal goals. The instruments for data collection are: a questionnaire addressed to the professionals of guidance designed research coordinated by Sanz Oro (1999) in which the answers are organized into three columns with a Likert scale assessing frequency in the realization of their professional functions, their importance and training. A second questionnaire whose objective was to collect the opinion of the students determining the importance of these functions in their academic and professional development. Finally, a semi-structured interview was applied consisting of 28 questions grouped along twelve dimensions that allowed us to deal in depth with the different perspectives held by the mentors involved in a work scenario. We have worked with the nine professionals, all the guidance professionals working in the six Secondary school of the areas at Risk of Social Exclusion in Córdoba. We have worked with a total of 251 students from the different secondary school belonging to these areas already mentioned. 74.1% of all students are in the 15-16 age group. However, there is a high percentage of schooling of more than 16 years (32.7%), due to the incorporation of these students into exceptional diversity attention programs with the aim of enabling the transition to the labour market in the best possible conditions.
The functions carried out by the counsellors more frequently and those who attach greater importance to their professional development and consider that they have greater training correspond to the items that refer to the most specific orientation in the academic-professional field: providing information to students on the different modalities of Bachelor and Vocational Training modules (= 3.38, = 3.78, = 3.62); use the resources available in the context to put students in contact with the world of professions (= 2.88); teach curricular units on the development and vocational orientation of students (= 2.88; = 378; = 3.38) and help students plan and set goals for their educational and professional future (= 2.75; = 3 , 67; = 3.38). The interviews carried out place special emphasis on the guiding action in the processes of transition to the world of work. The students value the importance given high scores in the interventions that the counsellor makes in the field of vocational guidance, such as: providing information on the different modalities of Bachelor and the different Vocational Training modules (= 3.60); planning and setting goals for the educational and professional future (= 3.42); selecting post-secondary educational centres when they finish their secondary education (= 3.33) and carry out a program to develop skills in job search (= 3.25). We observe that there is a degree of coherence in terms of praxis, importance and professional preparation in functions of a vocational nature. With regard to students, we note that the tasks of information, advice and support in the field of vocational guidance are extended to all students who are studying Compulsory Secondary Education, intensifying in 3rd and 4th of Compulsory Secondary Education since they are academic and transitional critical moments of decision making.
Castells, M. (1997). La era de la información. Economía, sociedad y cultura. La sociedad red. Madrid: Alianza. Cardús (2001). El desconcierto de la educación. Las claves para entender el papel de la familia, la escuela, los valores, los adolescentes, la televisión... y la inseguridad del futuro. Barcelona: Ediciones B. Cobos Cedillo, A. (2010). La construcción del perfil profesional de orientador y de orientadora. Estudio cualitativo basado en la opinión de sus protagonistas en Málaga (Tesis doctoral). Universidad de Málaga, Málaga. Recuperado de http://www.biblioteca.uma.es/bbldoc/tesisuma/17968501.pdf Martín Bris, M. y Gairín Sallán, J. (2007): La participación de las familias en la educación: un tema por resolver. Bordón. Revista Pedagogía, 59, 113-152 Puigdellivol, I. (2007). La educación especial en la escuela integrada: una perspectiva desde la diversidad. Barcelona: Graó Santana Vega, L.E. (2010). La innovación educativa: un desafío para los orientadores como agentes promotores de las iniciativas de cambio. 2º Cuatrimestre, 21(2), 261-270. Recuperado de http://www2.uned.es/reop/pdfs/2010/21-2%20-%20Lidia%20E%20Santana.pdf Sanz Oro, R. (1999). Los Departamentos de orientación en Educación Secundaria: roles y funciones. Barcelona: Cedecs. Torrents, D.; Merino, R.; Garcia, M. y Valls, O. (2018). El peso del origen social y del centro escolar en la desigualdad de resultados al final de la escuela obligatoria. Papers, Revista de Sociología, 103, 29-50.
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