32 SES 05.5 PS, General Poster Session - NW 32
General Poster Session
All branches face trends of digitalization that can shift today’s business models of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in Germany (Kiel et al., 2017). Digital enhancements and assistance for tasks, operations and processes in manual assembly are strongly researched topics and relevant for SME (Faber et al., 2017; Czerniak-Wilmes et al., 2017). Manual assembly stands for all operations in assembling a product (Nyhuis & Wiendahl, 2012). Besides, effects are growing complexity of human tasks in manual assembly and studies hint a boost in the likelihood of automatization scenarios in non-qualified jobs and professions (e.g. Frenz et al., 2015). Many employees working in manual assembly classify as formal non-qualified employees, who have rarely received vocational education and training (e.g. Kondrup, 2015). According to that, staff in manual assembly are a heterogeneous target group. The research project innowas develops a SME based continuing vocational training to promote this diversified target group by tutorial creation of manual assembly situations.
Because this training is not part of the German dual education system, the research project needs to regard to conditions of the further education system in Germany. While the German dual education system underlies many regulations and standards (e.g. BBiG, HwO), the further education system in Germany does not have restrictions or regulations in most cases (cf. Borowiec, 2014). Consequently, it is a very competitive market. In contrast to dual education system, trainings have to face with the fact that frequently customers are not the participants in the training. Employers send their personnel and choose trainings by business and economic criteria. They calculate if they can risk investments in personnel due to the threat that employees are sensitive to changes in their competences. After a training, higher competence of employees in manual assembly opens them a variety of other job opportunities in the German job market. From employer’s point of view, this investment equals to credit and default risk. So, it is a tradeoff between small short-term advantages, harmful effects on discontinued employment and large long-term educational benefits, which explain this decision dilemma. Certainly, marketing concepts enable providers to focus especially on demands of customers. To compete with the market, a new or sophisticated idea should be foundation for a training, for example learning through authorship by tutorial creation in the research project. Moreover, training concepts in further education markets need to be flexible in order to satisfy all customer demands. The research project aims a transfer of tutorial creation on every alien sequential process in different occupations. Hence, a didactic concept sets up a general framework for later individual adaptions on customer demands.
In summary, the presentation aims to answer the following research questions:
- What challenges arise from the German further education system to didactic concepts?
- What limits exist in further education market for manual assembly?
- How to build a flexible, customer-oriented didactic concept?
First of all, the research project develops a training that needs abilities to survive in the market after the funding phase. Additional to educational topics and questions, there is a focus on a business model as well. This differs from public funded vocational education in the German dual system. The training has to have unique characteristics, which attract customers and participants. Due to a market orientation, the research project uses structured analyses similar to a business plan. For instance, a SWOT analysis summarizes all attributes of the training. Interviews with employers shall provide prove that the training is attractively and fits into a market gap. The interviews will investigate reasons that lead to an attraction from customer view. Second, there is a demand to develop a training concept for highly diversified customers and target groups. This problem solves by using a didactical framework. Gerschner et al. (2017) provide a didactical concept based on the situated learning concept as German standard in vocational education (Bader & Müller, 2004). Additional to competence categorization of manual assembly occupations, they implement European Qualification Framework (European Parliament, and European Council, 2008) and Digital Competence Framework for Citizens “DigComp 2.1” (Carretero et al., 2017) for meeting diversity constraints of the target group and individual outcome fostering (Gerschner et al., 2017). Authoring system methods (Wiemer, 2015; Schröder, 2014) match the production processes involved in manual assembly, because both consist of sequential structures. Hence, they complement widespread teaching methods to a blended-learning concept in the training to foster planning and problem structuring. The operational situations in the training help participants to accomplish knowledge gains on assembly processes.
Resulting, the upcoming presentation will show how to develop a training for further education in Germany. It will name different obstacles and difficulties of the system conditions by an example training with authoring systems for company based continuing vocational training in digitalized manual assembly. Furthermore, it will describe how a didactic concept can solve problems occurring from the system. Next, realization and implementation of the designed training will start at DFA Aachen learning facility and at industrials partners. Expectations on outcomes situate in a proof of concept as well as showing the flexibility of the didactic concept in organizational situations regarding to different customer motives and heterogeneous participants. Moreover, the research project attempts to verify transfer effects of learning outcomes into the operational situations of participants. Acknowledgments This research is funded by research program “Innovative Ansätze zukunftsorientierter beruflicher Weiterbildung” of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and administrated by Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BiBB) within the research project “innowas: Innovative Weiterbildung mit Autorensystemen – Stärkung der horizontalen Mobilität in der Produktion durch Lernenden-Tutorials” (funding ID: 21IAWB093). Thanks to all project and value partners of innowas research project for participation in this project. Involved are IAW RWTH Aachen University, WZL RWTH Aachen University, Demonstrationsfabrik Aachen, PH Mechanik, Dörries Scharmann Technologie, ELABO, memex, Miele imperial-Werke, bhm Outsourcing Personalmanagement Zeitarbeit, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Schule Aachen, Jobcenter Aachen.
The european qualifications framework for lifelong learning (EQF). (2008). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Bader, R., & Müller, M. (Eds.). (2004). Unterrichtsgestaltung nach dem Lernfeldkonzept. Bielefeld: Bertelsmann. Borowiec, T. (2013). Checkliste Qualität beruflicher Weiterbildung: Wegweiser für Weiterbildungsinteressierte. Bonn: Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung. Carretero, S., Cuorikan, R., & Punie, Y. (2017). DigComp 2.1: The digital competence framework for citizens with eight proficiency levels and examples of use (No. EUR 28558 EN). Czerniak-Wilmes, J., Mertens, A., & Schlick, C. M. (2017). Innovative Mensch-Maschine-Interaktionskonzepte für den Facharbeiter der Zukunft in der Produktion 4.0. In G. Spöttl & L. Windelband (Eds.), Berufsbildung, Arbeit und Innovation: Vol. 44. Industrie 4.0: Risiken und Chancen für die Berufsbildung (pp. 171–186). Bielefeld: wbv. HwO Handwerksordnung, Deutscher Bundestag 17.09.1953. BBiG Berufsbildungsgesetz, Deutscher Bundestag 23.03.2005. Faber, M., Mertens, A., & Schlick, C. M. (2017). Cognition-enhanced assembly sequence planning for ergonomic and productive human–robot collaboration in self-optimizing assembly cells. Production Engineering, 11(2), 145–154. Frenz, M., Heinen, S., & Schlick, C. M. (2015). Industrie 4.0: Anforderungen an Fachkräfte in der Produktionstechnik. Berufsbildung in Wissenschaft und Praxis, 44(6), 12–16. Gerschner, K., Goppold, M., Molitor, M., & Frenz, M. (2017). Company based continuing vocational training with authoring systems for tasks in industrial manual assembly. In ICERI 2017 Proceedings: 10th international conference of education, research and innovation. Gerschner, K., Molitor, M., & Frenz, M. (2017). Analyse von Arbeitsanforderungen zur Entwicklung eines Weiterbildungskonzepts mit Autorensystemen in der industriellen Produktion. In M. Becker, C. Dittmann, J. Gillen, S. Hiestand, & R. Meyer (Eds.), Einheit und Differenz in den gewerblich-technischen Wissenschaften: Berufspädagogik, Fachdidaktiken und Fachwissenschaften (pp. 310–325). Münster: LIT-Verlag. Kiel, D., Müller, J., Arnold, C., & Voigt, K.-I. (2017). Sustainable Industrial Value Creation: Benefits and Challenges of Industry 4.0. International Journal of Innovation Management, 21(08), 1740015. Kondrup, S. (2015). Understanding unskilled work as a condition for articipation in adult education and training. European Journal for Research on the Education and Learning of Adults, 6(2), 159–173. Kultusministerkonferenz. (2016). Bildung in der digitalen Welt: Strategie der Kultusministerkonferenz. Berlin. Nyhuis, P., & Wiendahl, H.-P. (2012). Logistische Kennlinien: Grundlagen, Werkzeuge und Anwendungen (3. Aufl. 2012). VDI-Buch. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. Schröder, N. (2014). Medien machen schafft Praxis-Wissen.: Tutorials, Learning-Apps und iBooks im Einsatz an der berufsbildenden Schule. L.A. multimedia. (2), 10–13. Wiemer, C. (2015, March). Autorenlernen. 18. Hochschultage Berufliche Bildung, TU Dresden
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