16 SES 08 C, Social Media: Affordances and problems
The emergence of social media has greatly changed the communication and interaction patterns of individuals and organizations. Social media has influenced every aspect of our life. Especially in education, it has stand out with opportunities related with communication, collaboration, and content generation. However, social media is not only draw attention with the opportunities it provides, but also with some negativities that it has caused. Studies have shown that one of the drawbacks for social media is the cyberbullying experience, moreover, in recent years, it has been claimed that social media has become a more suitable environment for the appearance of bullying behavior than in other media environments. A study consistent with these claims has shown that individuals with active profiles in social networking sites are at increased risk of experiencing cyber victimization. Besides, establishing online communication, increased duration of time spent online also increases the likelihood of being cyber bullying perpetrator. That is, intense use of social media increases the number of not only cyber victims, but also the number of cyber bullying perpetrators. When we look at the rates of social media use, it is not hard to understand why social media has become such a convenient environment for cyber bullying. According to Internet use statistics from www.wearesocial.com in January 2017, the number of social media and mobile social media users doubled the increase in 2015. Same study also indicates that daily social media use duration of Turkish users is 3 hours 47 minutes with desktops and 2 hours 59 minutes with mobile devices.
Cyberbullying – appeared with dramatic inclusion of technological devices and Internet into our lives – defined as the act of humiliating or degenerating a person or group of people through modern technologies with a deliberate, persistent and hostile attitude. As in Turkey, students at various levels of schools in the world are exposed to cyber-bullying, that is, they experienced cyber victimization. The psychological and physiological well-being of cyber bullying victims are critically affected. These harms can result in victim's suicidal behavior. In addition, studies of why cyberbullies show this behavior suggest that people who are exposed to traditional or cyberbullying can then cyberbullying for revenge.
Moreover, some studies have found that some individuals can do cyberbullying to show their technological skills, feel strong, or have fun. Although there are only a few scientific studies on individuals' motivations for cyberbullying, one of the most common reasons for this behavior is anger. According to the literature, the effects of individual factors such as age, gender, etc. in the cyber bullying experience vary widely. It is therefore a requirement that these individual factors be studied in future researches. The increase in the use of the Internet technologies and social media environments make it more favorable for cyberbullying, and the need for up-to-date and detailed work on cyberbullying in the social media has been highlighted when the above mentioned threats to cyberbullying experience are taken into consideration.
This study aims to examine the relationship between the use of and attitudes towards social media and cyber bullying experience of university students and people's psychological problem areas in depth. The objectives of this research can be summarized as follows: a) To examine the relationship between cyber bullying / victimization experiences and the frequency of and attitudes towards social media use, b) To describe the causes of the relationship between frequency of and attitudes towards social media use and cyber victimization in depth, c) To describe the attitudes of cyber victims to cyber victimization and various psychological problem areas in depth.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship among the use of and attitudes towards social media and cyber bullying experience and psychological problem areas of people. In order to make a comprehensive and long-term assessment, this study has a mixed method design. The objectives of this study are planned to be carried out in two interconnected phases that are complementary to each other. In the first, quantitative stage, sample of the study will be undergraduate students who are continuing their education at Inonu University in the academic year of 2017-2018. For this study, it is aimed to reach at least 400 participants. This study, which aims to examine the cyber bullying experience (perpetrator / victim) towards various variables, includes variables such as cyber bullying, cyber victimization demographics (age, gender, faculty), social media use, social media attitudes. Correlational study will be conducted to determine the relationship among these variables. In the second stage, participants who have experienced cyber bullying victimization and who are social media users will be identified among the first stage participants. For this reason, purposeful sampling will be done. Purposeful sampling allows the researcher to select participants consciously and according to specific characteristics. The selected participants will be included in this stage towards volunteering. The number of participants targeted for this phase is 10-12. The focus group interview technique is planned for this study because of its advantages. These advantages can be listed as follows: 1- The focus group interview will give the opportunity to get the affected individuals to the center of the study. 2-Focus group interview will present a description that will reveal a picture both for the whole group and for each individual. 3. In the focus group interview, the members of the group will be influenced by each other because they are in the same cohesion during the interview. Thus, the problem expressed by one of the members will be a doorway for other members and they will have the possibility to share their own contents. Data collection tools for phase 1: Demographics (age, gender, faculty), Revised Cyber Bullying Inventory 2 and three subscales of the Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale (Subscales of General Social Media Usage, Social Network Friendliness and Media and Technology Use Attitudes). For phase 2: Semi-structured focus group interview questions and Beier sentence completion test.
All data collection and analysis phases of this study are planned and data will be collected by February. Therefore, data analysis, discussion and conclusions will be carried out after the data collection process.
Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide. Archives of suicide research, 14(3), 206-221. Dooley, J. J., Pyżalski, J., & Cross, D. (2009). Cyberbullying versus face-to-face bullying: A theoretical and conceptual review. Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217(4), 182-188. Raskauskas, J., & Stoltz, A. D. (2007). Involvement in traditional and electronic bullying among adolescents. Developmental psychology, 43(3), 564. Dilmac, B. (2009). Psychological needs as a predictor of cyber bullying: A preliminary report on college students. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 9(3), 1307-1325. Kowalski, R. M., Morgan, C. A., & Limber, S. P. (2012). Traditional bullying as a potential warning sign of cyberbullying. School Psychology International, 33(5), 505-519. Kowalski, R. M., Giumetti, G. W., Schroeder, A. N., & Lattanner, M. R. (2014). Bullying in the digital age: A critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth. Psychological bulletin, 140(4), 1073-1137. Gradinger, P., Strohmeier, D., Schiller, E. M., Stefanek, E., & Spiel, C. (2012). Cyber-victimization and popularity in early adolescence: Stability and predictive associations. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(2), 228-243. Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2006). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel arastirma yöntemleri. Seçkin yayıncılık. Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Kowalski RM, Limber SP and Agatston PW (2008). Cyberbullying: Bullying in the Digital Age. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers. Topçu, Ç., Erdur-Baker, Ö., & Çapa-Aydin, Y. (2008). Examination of cyberbullying experiences among Turkish students from different school types. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11(6), 643-648. Blumenfeld, W. J., & Cooper, R. M. (2010). LGBT and allied youth responses to cyberbullying: Policy implications. International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 3, 114–133. Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2013). Cyberbullying among adolescents: Implications for empirical research. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(4), 431-432. Patton, D. U., Hong, J. S., Ranney, M., Patel, S., Kelley, C., Eschmann, R., & Washington, T. (2014). Social media as a vector for youth violence: A review of the literature. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 548-553. Topcu, Ç., & Erdur-Baker, Ö. (2010). The revised cyber bullying inventory (RCBI): Validity and reliability studies. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 660-664. Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business horizons, 53(1), 59-68. Özgür, H. (2016). Adapting the Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale to Turkish. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 16(5), 1711-1735.
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