22 SES 12 D, Learning and Competence Development: New approaches
This paper considers the results of a small-scale teaching experience, which used the concept of mobile Personal Learning Environments (mPLEs) as a medium for developing students’ understanding of the new learning scenarios that emerge from the irruption of social media and as spaces for developing teaching ideas and learning approaches. Students explored the concept of mobile PLEs and deepened into its possibilities to develop creative ideas for their later use in teaching. This work reports pedagogical experiences with the use of PLEs within m-learning as learning scenarios in the context of an undergraduate course on Multimodal Literacy addressed to pre-service teachers. The paper argues that the use of PLEs in which students combine their everyday life devices with social media tools can greatly enrich the learners’ experience and produce valuable learning outcomes that will become tremendously rewarding once they enter real practice.
As indicated in the literature on Mobile Learning has evolved in recent years to move from a totally techno-centric view to a more pedagogical approach (Buchem, and Camacho, 2011).
It is difficult, however, to specify a unique strand of though. Authors such as Cochrane and Bateman (2010) and Safran et al (2010) speak of a mobile Web 2.0, but emphasize that the benefit of mobile learning is given by the portability, flexibility and context of mobile technologies, allowing promote collaboration and encouraging independent lifelong learning (Naismith et al, 2005; Traxler, 2009; Dyson, Raban, Litchfield and Lawrence, 2008).
PLEs are articulated and shapeless places confluence complex relationships between tools, tasks and content, to make mutual growth and enrichment (Castañeda and Soto, 2010), that develop communities of practice and virtual learning communities (Lu & Churchill, 2014; Nowell, 2014) as possible. Which leads us to definitely go for the use of mlearning as a catalyst for those shared experiences of collaborative learning, which allow self-regulation of individual learning and group (Mauri and Clarà, 2013; Cabero, 2013; Monereo and Badia, 2013) and the construction of these networks that shape and give meaning to the community of mobile learning.
In addition to that, as described by Wang et. al. (2009) and Fombona, Pascual and Madeira (2012), among the benefits offered by the use of mobile applications in training, is its universality and versatility. Briefly, social networks as tools that allow the introduction to the construction and configuration of PLEs of university students according to the experiences developed by Ruiz-Palmero, Sanchez and Gomez (2013), Gil, Ausín and Lezcano (2012) appear and Santamaria (2010).
This would allow us to generate networks and learning communities that make it possible to combine formal and informal learning areas, as both the PLE as IPLE, change the configuration of the teaching-learning of students in Higher Education (Marín-Juarros, Salinas-Ibáñez and Benito-Crosetti, 2013 and Casquero, Ovelar, Romo, Benito and Alberdi, 2013).
Thus, our proposal of teaching experience arises from the lack of knowledge regarding the digital and social competence of college students, a necessary training, we believe in full knowledge society and the total lack of PLEs with, personal learning environments as enrichment and training spaces and its huge potential in the field of higher education and especially the training and learning opportunities offered by the mlearning, since in many cases the benefits are unknown.
The starting point of this study was to determine whether PLEs could provide adequate space for the development of teaching ideas and collect evidence of student learning outcomes through the mobile learning that could be useful for future careers as teachers.
In this article three experiences in which students participated Master Degree in Elementary Education from the Faculty of Education at the University of Extremadura and Universitat Rovira i Virgili, both in Spain, are described. So the proposed work was exposed to a total of 315 students during the academic year 2011/2012, which were asked to build their PLEs using mobile applications, thus linking two new approaches to learning, learning Mobile (mlearning) and Personal Learning Environments (PLE). Firstly, they are offered information on PLE and Personal Learning Networks (Personal Learning Network-PLN) and are asked to think individually which elements (tools, space, time, people, anyway...) form part of their PLEs. Later in their collaborative work groups are asked in class to make a pooling and draw on paper their PLE. Then perform a photograph and using an identification hastag (#Name of the subject, the number and name of the group), this is raised to Twitter. The activity is interesting and motivating for students, as they get to use a tool such as the mobile phone which hitherto belonged to his staff and entertainment area, moving to use in the classroom and change their recreational use by another with a purpose formative. Next, the image is re-twitted by different collaborative work groups and visited links and commented, giving their opinions about PLEs other groups. For data collection, it was designed a questionnaire with 4 closed questions and 8 open questions, since it is an exploratory study. In total, it consists of 8 questions related to the following dimensions: 1) identification data, 2) Knowledge of PLE, 3) Composition of PLEs, 4) Teaching possibilities of PLEs and 5) training possibilities of PLEs. At the same time, during the development of the formative experiences, the participating teachers made a documentary analysis, from the productions of students according to the activities described above and also studying the composition of their PLEs, to deepen on the benefits that they convey both for them as future teachers and also in their own learning process.
The now called Web 2.0 offers many tools and resources that are based on the cloud that can be accessed from anywhere and can afford it, while student mobility. These aspects favor the incorporation of PLE in the learning process, blending formal and informal content and elucidating also aspects of private and public life. Despite the existence of numerous references in the literature on the use of PLE in teacher training, research has not provided clear evidence on the impact of the use of PLEs as learning scenarios or learning outcomes in training pre-service teachers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the PLE could provide new opportunities for the development of ideas for learning and for evidence in students those strategies and mechanisms that can help them-along with the technologies that lead into his pocket to configure other scenarios where both learning and sharing in their day to day in their future practice. The concept of PLE as a Personal Learning Environment recognizes that learning is ongoing and seeks to provide tools to support it. It also recognizes the role of the individual in organizing their own learning, which will take place in different contexts and situations and will not be provided by a single track but by many and changing channels. After the results obtained, there emerges the need for both teachers and educational institutions to continue addressing the concept of mPLEs and their pedagogical possibilities, for they surely will have a considerable impact on both our students and their future practice as teachers.
Attwell, G. (2007). Personal Learning Environments - the future of eLearning?. eLearning Papers, 2 (1), 1-8. Retrieved from: www.elearningeuropa.info/out/?doc_id=9758&rsr_id=11561. Buchem, I., & Camacho, M. (2011). M-project: first steps to Applying Action Research in Designing a Mobile Learning Course in Higher Education. In K. Rummler, J. Seipold, E. Lübcke, N. Pachler & G. Attwell (Eds.), Mobile learning: Crossing boundaries in convergent environments (pp. 123-132). London: Mobile Learning Group. Castañeda, L., & Adell, J. (eds.) (2013). Entornos personales de aprendizaje: claves para el ecosistema educativo en red. Alcoy: Marfil. Retrieved from: http://www.um.es/ple/libro/. Chien, Y.T., Chun-Yen, C. Ting-Kuan, Y., & Kuo-En, C. (2012). Engaging pre-service science teachers to act as active designers of technology integration: A MAGDAIRE framework. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28 (2012), 578-588. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2011.12.005. Cochrane, T., & Bateman, R. (2010). Smartphones give you wings: Pedagogical affordances of mobile Web 2.0. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(1), 1-14. Fombona, J., Pascual, M. Á., & Madeira, M.F. (2012). Realidad aumentada, una evolución de las aplicaciones de los dispositivos móviles. Pixel-Bit, Revista de Medios y Educación, 41, 197-210. Laurillard, D. (2007). Pedagogical forms for mobile learning. In N. Pachler (Ed.), Mobile learning: towards a research agenda (pp. 153-175). London: WLE Centre, Institute Of Education. Marín-Juarros, V., Salinas-Ibáñez, J., & de Benito-Crosetti, B. (2013). Research results of two personal learning environments experiments in a higher education institution. Interactive Learning Environments, 22 (2), 205-220. doi: 10.1080/10494820.2013.788031. Mauri, T., & Clarà, M. (2013). Ayuda educativa entre iguales en tareas de escritura colaborativa on-line. Un estudio de las relaciones entre Presencia Docente y Presencia Cognitiva. Cultura y Educación: Revista de teoría, investigación y práctica, 24 (3), 337-350. Monereo, C. & Badía, A. (2013). Aprendizaje estratégico y tecnologías de la información y la comunicación: una revisión crítica. Education in the Knowledge Society, 14 (2), 15-41. Pachler, N., Ranieri, M., Manca, S., & Cook, J. (2012). Editorial: Social Networking and Mobile Learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43: 707–710. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01365.x. Traxler, J. (2009). Learning in a Mobile Age. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 1(1), 1-12. doi: 10.4018/jmbl.2009010101. Wang, M., Shen, R., Novak, D., & Pan, X. (2009). The impact of mobile learning on students’ learning behaviours and performance: Report from a large blended classroom. British Journal of Educational Technology. 40 (4), 673–695. doi: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00846.x.
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