16 SES 01 A, ICT in Schools
The increasing use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in society places demands on education. Nowadays, students in primary and secondary education are expected to acquire 21st century skills, and teachers are supposed to engage in learner-centred teaching (Admiraal et al., 2017; Saavedra & Opfer, 2012). In learner-centred learning environments ICT can be used as a tool to stimulate processes of knowledge construction and to encourage active learning and higher order thinking (Jonassen, Peck, & Wilson, 1999; Niederhauser & Stoddart, 2001). However, ICT can also contribute to learning environments where the teacher plays a central and directive role, and many studies have shown that this is still a significant part of the use of ICT in schools (Smeets, 2005; Tondeur, Van Braak, & Valcke, 2007). This leads to the conclusion that ICT is largely being used in ways that support existing teaching practices (Fraillon, Ainley, Schulz, Friedman, & Gebhardt, 2014; Hayes, 2007; Wastiau, Blamire, Kearney, Quittre, Van de Gaer, & Monseur, 2013). Other researchers have pointed out that little attention is paid to the examination of relations between teachers’ pedagogical practices and the type of computer applications used in these teachers’ lessons (Inan, Lowther, Ross, & Strahl, 2010). These authors studied this relation by carrying out classroom observations. The most commonly observed ICT activity in these authors’ study was internet browsing, followed by word processing and drill/practice/tutorials. A significant relationship was found between using the internet, word processing and presentation software and student-centred activities, whereas drill and practice activities were found to limit active student engagement and collaboration. Several studies have focused on the role teachers play in the integration of ICT in education. Admiraal et al. (2017) distinguished five teacher types, including ‘Learner-centred teachers with technology’, and ‘Teachers uncomfortable with technology’. Eickelmann and Vennemann (2017) also developed a typology in which five types were distinguished, ranging from ‘ICT enthusiasts’ to ‘Absolute doubters who reject the use of ICT in school’. In addition to the role of the teacher, Eickelmann (2011) found that the role of the principal is crucial in schools that are successful in implementing ICT.
The focus of the present study is on pedagogical practices, types of use of ICT and perceived outcomes of the use of ICT in education in primary and secondary schools in The Netherlands. The following research questions are addressed:
- To what extent do teachers in primary and secondary schools use ICT in classes and what is the nature of this ICT use?
- What are the perceived outcomes of ICT use according to teachers?
- What are school leaders’ views on the nature of ICT use in education that is desirable in two years' time and what outcomes of ICT use do they expect?
- What factors at the teacher and school level are linked to specific types of ICT use in education and to perceived outcomes of ICT use?
The present study was carried out by administering web surveys to primary and secondary school teachers and school leaders in The Netherlands. In 2017, data were obtained from 1053 primary and 1165 secondary school teachers, and from 399 primary and 266 secondary school leaders. The teacher questionnaire included questions about the teachers’ background characteristics, the use of ICT in their classes, their pedagogical practices, and perceived outcomes of ICT use. School leaders were questioned about school policy, ICT infrastructure, their views on desirable use of ICT in two years’ time and their expectations about outcomes of ICT use. School leaders were invited by regional ICT coordinators to participate in the study and to stimulate teachers in their schools to take part. In addition, a random sample of schools was drawn and contacted by telephone in order to invite them to participate. Most of the questions in the questionnaires consisted of six-point Likert items. For these items, reliability analyses were carried out and Cronbach alpha coefficients were calculated. Alpha coefficients ranged from .70 to .91. Subsequently, mean scores were calculated for each scale variable, and analyses of variance and regression analyses were carried out. In January 2018, school boards and school leaders were given the opportunity to sign up schools for an inventory of ICT usage and its perceived effects. An appeal to sign up schools was published on the website of the national agency that supports the use of ICT in education. In this follow-up study the questionnaires that have been validated in the 2017 study will be applied again. The incentive to participate in the study is the feedback schools will be provided with, indicating the current status of their schools in the field of ICT use and comparing this with the national results. In addition to the analyses that have been carried out on the 2017 dataset, multilevel analyses will be carried out in order to assess the impact of teacher level as well as school level variables on the use of ICT in the schools and on the perceived outcomes of ICT use. Apart from this, between school board variance may be calculated.
Results from the 2017 study show significant differences between primary and secondary schools with respect to the use of ICT as a source of information or as a tool (e.g. using the internet or Youtube videos as a source of information, using presentation software or spreadsheets) and the use of ICT as a facilitator of learning processes (e.g. using software to practice skills, using simulation software, or educational games). The teacher’s gender and age proved to be no significant predictors of the extent and type of ICT use. Whether the focus of the teacher’s pedagogical practice was on teacher-centred or learner-centred learning contributed only to a small extent to the type of ICT use. In addition, a significant correlation was found between the use of ICT and perceived outcomes of ICT use. At the conference, results from the 2018 study will be presented in addition to the results of the 2017 study.
Admiraal, W., Louws, M., Lockhorst, D., Paas, T., Buynsters, M., Cviko, A., ... & van der Ven, F. (2017). Teachers in school-based technology innovations: A typology of their beliefs on teaching and technology. Computers & Education, 114, 57-68. Eickelmann, B. (2011). Supportive and hindering factors to a sustainable implementation of ICT in schools. Journal of Educational Research Online, 3, 75-103. Eickelmann, B., & Vennemann, M. (2017). Teachers’ attitudes and beliefs regarding ICT in teaching and learning in European countries. European Educational Research Journal, 16 (6), 733-761. Fraillon, J., Ainley, J., Schulz, W., Friedman, T., & Gebhardt, E. (2014). Preparing for Life in a Digital Age: The IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study international Report. Amsterdam: IEA/Springer. Hayes, D.N.A. (2007). ICT and learning: Lessons from Australian classrooms. Computers & Education, 49 (2007) 385–395. Inan, F.A., Lowther, D.L., Ross, S.M., & Strahl, D. (2010). Pattern of classroom activities during students’ use of computers: Relations between instructional strategies and computer applications. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 540–546. Jonassen, D.H., Peck, K.L., & Wilson, B.G. (1999). Learning with technology: a constructivist perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill. Niederhauser, D.S., & Stoddart, T. (2001). Teachers’ instructional perspectives and use of educational software. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 15-31. Saavedra, A.R., & Opfer, V.D. (2012). Learning 21st-century skills requires 21st-century teaching. Phi Delta Kappan, 94 (2), 8-13. Smeets, E. (2005). Does ICT contribute to powerful learning environments in primary education? Computers & Education, 44, 343-355. Tondeur J., Van Braak J., & Valcke M. (2007). Towards a typology of computer use in primary education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23, 197–206. Wastiau, P., Blamire, R., Kearney, C., Quittre, V., Van de Gaer, E., & Monseur, C. (2013). The Use of ICT in Education: a survey of schools in Europe. European Journal of Education, 48, 11-27.
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