16 SES 09 B, Collaboration and Identity Construction in Digital Environments
In the last decades, the use of ICT has changed literacy practices in our society (Ala-Mutka et al., 2009; Gillen 2014). Currently, teachers must be prepared to use ICT and provide technology-supported learning opportunities to their students (UNESCO, 2011). In this context, digital competence acquires "an integral role in the provision of all aspects of lifelong learning" (Selwyn , 2013). In the European area of Higher Education (EHEA), digital competence is already contemplated as equally important as it is in other institutions.
The European Commission (2007) takes into account the digital competence as one of the most relevant and defines it as "the set of knowledge, skills, attitudes (thus including abilities, strategies, values and awareness) that are required when using ICT and digital media to perform tasks; solve problems; communicate; manage information; collaborate; create and share content; and build knowledge. Recent attention has been focused on the need for digital competence, for teachers of current education colleges and university students of these degrees (Gutiérrez, Palacios, & Torrego, 2010) so that these, in turn, can be developed later in their future students (Ruiz, Rubia, Anguita, & Fernández, 2010, pp. 173). Given these positions on digital competence, Spanish universities have responded by considering that it is an indispensable nuclear competence. Some universities have specifically addressed digital competence by designing subjects that contemplate it directly and others have suggested the need to integrate it across the course of university studies. Now, among the teachers of these universities there is a great concern that grade students do not receive adequate training in relation to digital technologies (Aguaded-Gómez, 2009; Paredes, Guitert, & Rubia, 2015; Herrada & Herrada, 2011; Losada, Valverde, & Correa, 2012).
In this context, the impact of associations and teaching networks as spaces for exchange and knowledge is undoubtful. Informal teachers' communities and networks offer teachers the possibility to become voluntarily involved in shared learning, reflecting on teaching practice and receiving support. Although professors seem to pay increasing attention to teaching networks (Professional Learning Networks), there is a shortage of research on these and their effects, especially in terms of contributing to the development of educational policies. Most studies on teacher networks focus on the learning experiences of teachers in a single network, and participate in these exchange spaces to create professional knowledge (Carpenter & Krutka, 2015, Trust et al. 2016; Forte, Humphreys, & Park, 2012) and collaborate and feel supported by other education professionals (Carpenter & Krutka, 2015, Visser et al., 2014). Although some scholars have explored the potential of certain networks (Kelly & Antonio, 2016; Trust et al., 2016), there is still an important gap in the literature about the value of teacher networks and the way in which they contribute to the development of improvements in education.
An issue to solve, is it undoubtedly how to support the networks of teachers as agents of educational change? One of the key factors to support and train teachers as agents of change is helping them respond to the challenge that is supposed to respond to the changing needs of today's society. The acquisition of the necessary skills and transversal skills (21st century skills) that are required in a digital and networked society is, therefore, fundamental. In the framework of teacher training, teaching networks play a very relevant role in how to redesign both initial teacher training (ITT) and continuous professional development (CPD). The main challenge that nowadays have the networks of professors is the one to consolidate like agents of the change trying to offer tools and means of reflection to construct policies that contribute to the improvement of the education.
The study we present evidences a wide gap between the digital competence developed in informal learning contexts and its scarcity in university literacy practices (formal learning settings). This paper accounts for the results of an ARMIF project whose purpose was to elaborate an interuniversity proposal of initial teacher training in relation to digital technologies in order to guide the development of educational policies in pre-service teacher e. Based on the common framework of Digital Teaching Competence (DTC) established in the PICDD, we analyzed the presence or absence of CDD in the curricula of the Primary and Infant Education of the 9 Catalan universities where these degrees are taught (UAB, UAO-CEU, UB, UdG, UdL, UIC, URL, URV and UVic). The PICDD establishes 5 dimensions which relate to: 1. Design, planning and didactic implementation. 2. Organization and management of digital spaces and resources. 3. Communication and collaboration. 4. Ethics and digital citizenship. 5. Professional development,(Generalitat de Catalunya, 2016). To identify the training needs linked to digital technologies in the initial teacher training, a discussion group was held with teachers belonging to associations and networks of teachers. Evidence was collected through direct observation, audio recording and subsequent transcription of the data. For its analysis, the contributions of the participants were contrasted with those established in the PICDD, organized in five dimensions. The discussion group was made up of 10 teachers representing four different teacher networks. Also, a survey was carried out that included the dimensions and the descriptors of the PICDD (Generalitat de Catalunya, 2016). In order to be able to evaluate each item, a rating scale was assigned from 1 to 5. 305 teachers responded: 46 for child education, 179 for primary education and 80 for secondary education.
The main findings of the study show that the professional development of teachers is the most highly regarded overall dimension, though not by teachers' networks, since they attach more importance to the communication and collaboration aspects and the methodological dimension of digital teaching competence. It is in this field where professors emphasize the need to highlight those pedagogical aspects that include the design and planning of activities through an integrated use of the technology. On the other hand, the emphasis is also placed on the need to incorporate the latest emerging trends and technologies into learning processes, highlighting it as an important component of digital competence that must be accompanied by a good learning process throughout life. With regard to professional teacher development, participation in lifelong learning activities in the field of digital competence, lifelong learning and the competence of learning to learn as key and fundamental aspects are identified. On the other hand, the study also identifies as a key necessity of current teaching staff the incorporation of teaching innovations based on digital technologies in classrooms, which in turn requires a constant updating of contents. Finally, the need for participation in learning virtual communities understood as a space for teacher training is another demand from teacher networks.
Ala-Mutka, K., Punie, Y., & Redecker, C. (2008). Digital competence for lifelong learning. Luxemburg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Retrieved from ftp://ftp.jrc.es/pub/EURdoc/JRC48708.TN.pdf Domingo-Coscollola, M., Sánchez-Valero, J. A., & Sancho-Gil, J. M. (2014). Researching on and with Young People: Collaborating and Educating. Comunicar, 42(21), 157-164, doi: https://doi.org/10.3916/C42-2014-15 European Commission (2007). Key competences for lifelong learning. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Retrieved from https://goo.gl/Doxenb Ferrari, A. (2012). Digital Competence in Practice: An Analysis of Frameworks (Report EUR 25351). Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, European Commission. Retrieved from http://ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/JRC68116.pdf Generalitat de Catalunya (2016). Resolución ENS/1356/2016, de 23 de mayo, por la que se da publicidad a la definición de la competencia digital docente. Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya. Gillen, J. (2014). Digital literacies. New York & London: Routledge. Guzmán-Simón, F., García-Jiménez, E., & López-Cobo, I. (2017). Undergraduate Students’ Perspectives on Digital Competence and Academic Literacy in a Spanish University. Computers in Human Behavior. 74, 196-204. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.04.040 Kelly, N., & Antonio, A. (2016). Teacher peer support in social network sites. Teaching and Teacher Education, 56, 138-149. Krumsvik, R. J. (2014). Teacher educators' digital competence. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 58(3), 269-280. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2012.726273 Losada, D., Valverde, J., & Correa, J. M. (2012). La tecnología educativa en la Universidad Pública Española. Píxel-Bit, 41, 133-148. Partnership for 21st Century Learning (2015). Framework for 21st century learning. Washington, DC: The Partnership for 21st Century Learning. Retrieved from https://goo.gl/rpUK94 Ruiz, I., Rubia, B., Anguita, R., & Fernández, E. (2010). La formación de los futuros maestros y la integración de las TIC en la educación: anatomía de un desencuentro. Revista de Educación, 352, 149-178. Sancho-Gil, J. M., Sánchez-Valero, J. A., & Domingo-Coscollola, M. (2017). Research-based insights on initial teacher education in Spain. European Journal of Teacher Education, 40(3), 310-325. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2017.1320388 Selwyn, N. (2013). Education in a Digital World: Global Perspectives on Technology and Education. Londres: Routledge. Trust, T., Krutka, D. G., & Carpenter, J. P. (2016). " Together we are better": Professional learning networks for teachers. Computers & Education. UNESCO (2011). UNESCO ICT. Competency Framework for Teachers. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002134/213475e.pdf
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