01 SES 03 C, Professional Learning for Inclusive Practice
Discussions on inclusive education shape the current european educational research. The central idea of inclusion is the common instruction of all children and adolescents regardless of their qualifications, abilities and knowledge (Prengel 2006, Hinz 2015). Working in heterogeneous groups is therefore an essential aspect in inclusive teaching and learning settings. However, heterogeneity does not only refer to the class composition of the students, but also to the team constellations of the teachers. In the school model of the New Middle School in Austria, teachers from different school traditions teach together. Various training, attitudes and teacher socialization influence the team dynamics of the actors as well as the teaching behavior.
In this paper, the psychodynamic dimension of inclusive teaching in the team of teachers will be discussed. Ambivalences towards new school structures as well as personal challenges affect the emotional psychic space of the teachers. Fears and resistance obscure the view of pupils, and they also have a counterproductive effect on inclusive teaching and learning.
The psychoanalytic observation method according to the Tavistock model (Rustin & Bradley 2008) focuses on innerpsychic experience and unconscious relationship dynamics. The use of work-discussion protocols and meetings as a psychoanalytically oriented practice reflection is a way to unravel unconscious dynamics in everyday working life and to develop in-depth understanding of one's own thinking, feeling and acting and that of others.
In which form psychodynamic processes, unconscious communication in the team as well as fears, imagination and desires of the acting persons the cooperation in inclusive lessons can influence, is discussed with the example of a teacher team in an inclusive led class. In this context, it is asked to what extent work-discussion can contribute to the psychoanalytic understanding of inclusive teaching-learning settings and improve the ability of mentalization (Ramberg & Gingelmaier 2016) and reflection as a matter of professionalism in inclusive learning settings.
Referring to the research question, in which form psychodynamic observational learning can contribute to empower teachers in inclusive learning settings, the analysis of case studies of work-discussion-seminars shall be illustrated and discussed. Characteristic of the learning in the work discussion seminar is a decelerated attitude of all participants, which is ultimately due to the methodical three-step (observation in action, protocolling and meetings): • Daily, and particularly emotionally stressful work situations, form the subject of observation. • Approximately one-hour practical situations are recorded in as much detail as possible in the first person's descriptive form. • These protocols are discussed in the seminar line by line and analysed according to psychoanalytic as well as (school) pedagogical background theories. Hypotheses are recorded in parallel in meeting minutes. During the reading of the protocol, the group creates a vivid image that allows a deep immersion in the psychodynamics of the practice situation and enables an emotional re-staging of the situation. The group, psychoanalytically guided on the one hand and as heterogeneous as possible (for example, different types of schools), methodically plays an important role: The seminar participants' professional containment allows the participants to experience a mental space of reflection in which "indigestible" as well as not yet nameable can be transformed into new thoughts and insights into relationships. The mental group space and the transference dynamics arising in it provide another field of experience for the observer and the observer to come into contact with emotional aspects of learning and teaching (Bion, 2001). For research the protocols, interviews and documentations of the analysis of the seminar group were analysed within an action research process based on grounded theory. Finding inductive categories against the background of reflective learning processes and understanding psychodynamics were generated. In this paper a case study will be presented and discussed.
Educational situations are challenging situations and can put teachers into (psychic) stress that can affect their ability to reflect and act. Due to psychological stress, a number of authors (Allen, 2006, Gerspach, 2007, Taubner, 2008, Hirblinger, 2009, Funder et al., 2013) point out that mentalization functions can be restricted situationally (Taubner, 2015) and subsequently lead to misinterpretations. This is also very relevant in the context of working in complex pedagogical settings. Experiences with successful containment can be helpful in strengthening the ability to mentalize (Schultz-Venrath, 2013). Due to the continuous and protected reflection space, participants are offered the opportunity to gain confidence in the group and to mitigate defences. The research results show the relevance of constant and continuous learning groups for the development of a sustainable observational attitude in pedagogical practice. In this respect, Klafki (2002) calls for the need to reflect on the characteristics of school life as early as possible in education, as well as the development of a critical-reflexive attitude in the education of educators (Roters 2012). The consideration of the emotional aspects adds professional reflection to an important component, so that a strong reflection culture for pedagogical professionalism can be promoted. Regarding to the case study in this paper following findings will be presented: 1) the teacher experienced emotional relief, as she realized more consciously that the behaviour of her team-mate was not her as a person, but the defences against the school system was owed. 2) The teacher learned more about her personality and her dealings with team relationships by realizing that she had to undergo a narcissistic injury. 3) The conscious perception of transference processes allowed her a change of perspective and opened a new view of pupils.
Hinz, A. (2015): Inklusion als Vision und Brücken zum Alltag. Über Anliegen, Umformungen und Notwendigkeiten schulischer Inklusion. In: Häcker, T. / Walm, M. (Hrsg.): Inklusion als Entwicklung. Konsequenzen für Schule und Lehrerbildung. Bad Heilbrunn, S. 68-84. Klauber, T. (1999): Observation ”at work”. In: Infant Observation. The International Journal of Infant Observation and its Application 2, H. 3, S. 30-41. Prengel, A. (2006): Pädagogik der Vielfalt. Verschiedenheit und Gleichberechtigung in interkultureller, feministischer und integrativer Pädagogik. 3. Aufl. Wiesbaden. Rustin, M.E. (2008): Work discussion: some historical and theoretical observations. In: Rustin, M. / Bradley, J. (Ed.) (2008): Work Discussion. Learning from Reflective Practice in Work with Children and Families. London, S. 3-21. Roters, B. (2012). Professionalisierung durch Reflexion in der Lehrerbildung. Münster: Waxmann. Schultz-Venrath, U. (2013). Lehrbuch. Mentalisieren - Psychotherapien wirksam gestalten. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta. Taubner, S. (2008). Mentalisierung und Einsicht. Die reflexive Kompetenz als Operationalsierung von Einsichtsfähigkeiten. In Forum der Psychoanalyse, 24, (1) 16 - 31. Taubner, S. (2015). Konzept Mentalisieren. Eine Einführung in Forschung und Praxis. Gießen: Psychosozial.
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