23 SES 14 D, Mixed Session
Education is vulnerable to corruption. Despite numerous initiatives and projects to address the corruption risks, in many countries education is still perceived as being among the sectors most prone to corruption.
In an effort to tackle the challenge in a more comprehensive and systematic way, a number of countries have carried out in-depth assessments in their education systems over the past few years (Serbia, Tunisia, Armenia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan). The work took place in partnership with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Center for Applied Policy, and the Open Society Foundations, and relied on a methodology that interconnects several research protocols to collect evidence of policy shortcomings that create opportunities and incentives for education participants to engage in corruption.
The country assessments were driven by an assumption that corruption in education is not an isolated phenomenon that affects the sector “from outside”, but a consequence of deeper-rooted problems in the education system itself, which affect the learning experience and environment of stakeholders in ways that may compromise the integrity of their behaviour.
According to a common definition, integrity stands for a “pattern of conduct”, a way of acting which is in line with values and principles associated with a higher goal and leading to its attainment. In education, integrity could be described as the continued commitment of education participants and institutions to act in accordance with values and principles that apply to education, without engaging in corruption.
Our thematic study seeks to identify whether values and principles that matter for integrity, might be applicable across national borders and from there, whether selected patterns of problematic behaviour in education can be qualified as violations of education integrity irrespective of cultural, historical and political differences between countries.
We use a form of mixed methods research, which involves secondary analysis of findings from the assessments of education system integrity in a selection of countries, including data on education system performance, and legal analysis of primary and secondary sources, in particular basic rules, principles, and international commitments upon which education and the public sector in these and other countries is based, and on which they rely to deliver quality, equity, and respect for the rights of education participants. Examples of such sources include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the United Nations Convention against Corruption, the UN Sustainable Development Goals, etc.
Our study establishes that there are significant, largely unexplored commonalities between integrity violations in education in different countries. They fit into common definitions, are enabled by similar factors, and infringe a comparable selection of basic rules, principles, and international commitments. The results enable the formulation of definitions and provide an overview of nine practices that violate education integrity, which can take place at any level of education: illicit access to education, improper private supplementary tutoring, undue recognition of learning and academic achievement, politicisation of education, favouritism in staffing decisions, misappropriation of funds, procurement fraud, cheating, as well as accreditation and licensing fraud. For each violation, we also identify the commitments of countries that these practices violate, and describe the policy context in which they typically take place.
Council of Europe. (1999). Criminal Law Convention on Corruption. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. Hallak, J. & Poisson, M., 2007. Corrupt schools, corrupt universities: What can be done?. Paris: IIEP Milovanovitch, M. (2014). Fighting Corruption in Education: A Call for Sector Integrity Standards. In H. Cisse, M. N. Menon, M.-C. Segger Cordonier, V. O. Nmehielle, & (eds.), The World Bank Legal Review, Volume 5; Fostering Development through Opportunity, Inclusion and Equity (pp. 367-380). Washington DC: The World Bank. Milovanovitch, M. (forthcoming). Integrity of Education Systems (INTES): Assessment Methodology. OECD Education Working Papers. Paris: OECD Publishing. Milovanovitch, M. & Lapham, K., forthcoming. In the Shadows of Education Reforms in Armenia and Ukraine. In: I. Silova & M. Chankseliani, Eds. Comparing Post-Socialist Transformations: Education in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press OECD. (2008). Corruption: A Glossary of International Standards in Criminal Law. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. (2012). Strengthening Integrity and Fighting Corruption in Education: Serbia. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. (2017). OECD Reviews of Education Integrity: Ukraine 2017. Paris: OECD Publishing. Philp, M. (1999). Citizenship and Integrity. In A. Montefiore, & D. Vines (Eds.), Integrity in the Public and Private Domains (pp. 32-62). London: Routledge. Transparency International. (2013). Global Corruption Report: Education. New York: Routledge. United Nations. (2004). United Nations Convention against Corruption. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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