13 SES 16, After Postmodernism In Educational Theory?
Vattimo (1983; 1988) claims that the perspective of weak thought or perspective of postmodern is that we must accept the uncertainty, and discontinuity as a ground of our own permanent being. The postmodern philosophy is not some period of the history of philosophy which can be leave behind and to move to the next more developed phase. The reason for this is the idea of modernity itself. The idea of new and endless development are the inventions of modernity and postmodern makes this ideas questionable. According postmodern all our ”new” thinking is now in some form the repetition of the old, which has been new. Lyotard describes this by saying that a work can become modern only if it is first postmodern (Lyotard 2017). Vattimo argues, that Heidegger’s term Verwindung describes our postmodern historical situation. Verwindung is neither overcoming of something nor Hegelian dialectical Aufhebung. Verwindung is like traces of illness or a kind of pain to which we are leaving back. Vattimo suggest, that Heideggerian complex term Verwindung can be translated with much more familiar term as “secularization” (Vattimo 1988, 171-175, 176-177). What this mean to philosophy of education? There are many branches of postmodern philosophy and postmodern philosophy of education. One branch of postmodern philosophy of education is based on Heidegger’s destruction and Nietzsche’s nihilism and philosophies of their followers, like Lyotard, Derrida, Foucault, Lacan and Vattimo (example Usher & Edwards 1994 and Peters 2011 ). We follow this branch and especially Vattimo’s weak thought and hermeneutical philosophy (postmodern hermeneutics and hermeneutical communism, see Vattimo & Zabala 2011). We claim that postmodernity does not mean the end of education and educational science, but it means the end of final truths in education. There is not anymore ultimate possibility to solve pedagogical paradoxes, but there will be new ways to think pedagogical paradoxes. There is no more ultimate end of education, but there can be different kind of ends. This does not mean vanishing of social utopia and acceptance of neoliberal educational policy. Secularization and nihilism in here doesn’t mean abandoning the resistance to inequalities in (postmodern) cognitive capitalism. Postmodern theory and praxis in education can make use of philosophies of Heidegger and Marx in the spirit of Vattimo’s & Zabala’s (2011) hermeneutic communism.
Heidegger, M. 2002. Identity and Difference. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Lyotard, J.-F. 2017. Answering the Question: What Is Postmodernism? http://cources.arch.ntus.gf. Visited 27.10.2017. Nietzsche, F. 1974. The Gay Science. New York: Vintage Books. Peters, M. 2011. The Last Book of Postmodernism: Apocalyptic Thinking, Philosophy and Education in the Twenty-First Century. New York: Peter Lang. Peters, M. & N. Burbules. 2004. Poststructuralism and Educational Research. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group. Ushrer, R. & Edwards, R. 1994. Postmodernism and Education. London: Routledge. Vattimo, G. 1983. “Dialectics, Difference, Weak Thought”. In G. Vattimo & P. A. Rovatti (eds.): Weak Thought. Vattimo, G. 1988. The End of Modernity. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University. New York: State University of New York Press. Vattimo, G. & Zabala. S. 2011. Hermeneutic communism from Heidegger to Marx. New York: Columbia University Press
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