19 SES 16, Ethnographic Accounts on Knowledge and its Conception Part 1
Symposium to be continued in 19 SES 17
Educational reforms based on the premise that high-performing teachers produce high-performing students that in turn is considered necessary to create a high-performance society that is competitive in the global economy (Liew, 2012), have been launched all over the world with the ambition to strengthening teachers' professional knowledge and skills. A Swedish reform that follows that logic is the so-called Career Services for Teachers (CST) reform (Prop. 2012/13:136, 2013) which introduced a new category of teachers, the so called 'first teachers' (Alvunger, 2016), that are expected to spread their expertise to other teachers and thereby the Swedish schools quality. The logic in the reform text bears characteristics typical for global education reforms described by Ball (2003) as consisted of three embedded interrelated policy technologies; the market, managerialism and performativity. In the CST-reform, performativity is the technology that appears most clearly in relation to the teachers and to the definition of their profession, knowledge and skill. Performativity is, according to Ball (2003), a technology that regulates and defines what is of worth, quality or value through the measure of performances of individuals subjects or organizations (p. 144). The consequence is that the logic of performativity has displaced the notion of discipline as the tool for social evaluation (Locke, 2015). Performativity has thus become a regulative force containing a representation of the teacher as a neoliberal professional where individual professional development is prioritized prior to collegial development. In relation to the above we argue that the CST reform urgent questions; what is indicative for skilled professional teachers and how should these be measured or in the end can these skills enhance the quality of students and education? In this study we will elaborate on this. The paper deals with questions about how professional knowledge and skills are described and addressed in our ethnographic study of first teacher and headmasters that were responsible for the appointment of these positions. The theoretical underpinning is taken from the sociological theories (Singh, 2002; Bernstein, 2000) and policy sociological theories of performativity (Ball, 2006; Beach, 2010; Liew, 2012; Locke, 2015). With this contribution, our aim is to elaborate on the consequences of policy changes and what is considered valuable knowledge for the teacher profession and what consequences this may have for teachers' work and professional identity. The results will hopefully be of relevance for researchers, headmasters, teachers and policymakers both in Europe and other countries.
Alvunger D. (2016) Vocational teachers taking the lead: VET teachers and the career services for teachers reform in Sweden. Nordic Journal Of Vocational Education And Training 6: 32-52. Ball SJ. (2006) Education policy and social class : the selected works of Stephen J. Ball, London ;: Routledge. Beach D. (2010) Identifying and comparing Scandinavian ethnography: comparisons and influences. Ethnography & Education 5: 49-63. Bernstein B. (2000) Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: theory, research, critique, Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Liew WM. (2012) Perform or else: the performative enhancement of teacher professionalism. Asia Pacific Journal of Education 32: 285-303. Locke K. (2015) Performativity, Performance and Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory 47: 247-259. Promemoria U2012/4904/S. (2012) Karriärvägar m.m i fråga om lärare i skolväsendet, Regeringskansliet. Prop. 2012/13:136. (2013) Karriärvägar för lärare i skolväsendet m.m., Regeringskansliet, Stockholm Utbildningsdepartementet. Singh P. (2002) Pedagogising Knowledge: Bernstein's theory of the pedagogic device. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION 23: 571 - 582.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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