23 SES 12 A JS, Globalizing Test-Based Accountabilities in Education: Policy transfer and re-contextualization dynamics Part 1: Global Perspectives
Joint Symposium NW 23 and NW 28 to be continued in 23 SES 13 A JS
This presentation will explore the political economy of the implementation of a School Autonomy with Accountability (SAWA) reform in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The research relies on a case study design, and aims at answering the following research questions: Why and how SAWA policies have been implemented in Minas Gerais? What is the theory of change of those policies? What and how different political actors have participated in the implementation of those policies? What is the link between SAWA agenda and the education privatization and the emergence of Global Education Industry and its agendas? Our theoretical framework has been based on the evolutionary mechanisms and drivers for change of the cultural political approach, Kingdon’s multiple streams models of policy analysis, and the concept of theory of change that lie beyond any political reform (Jessop, 2010; Pawson & Tilley, 1997). The study draws on a qualitative analysis of a combination of data sources, including secondary sources (policy texts, parliamentary debates, academic literature, legislation) and semi-structured interviews with more than 20 key informants. The selection of informants has followed a non-stratified strategy (Tansey, 2007) and includes politicians, labour unions, representatives from philanthropic organizations, designers of the external test, and staff of the Secretary of Education as well as other educational authorities. The sample of key informants has followed a non-stratified strategy (Tansey, 2007). The sample of interviewees includes more than 20 key informants, including politicians, labour unions, philanthropic organizations, designers of the external tests, and administration and Secretary of Education staff. The main results of the research show that accountability reforms in Brazil have experimented an exponential growth and affect a growing number of States. Specifically, in Minas Gerais, it is possible to identify three different periods of accountability reform: the implementation of the reform under austerity principles (2003-2008); the consolidation of a high-stakes regime under managerial reforms (2008-2015); and the reversal of the hard SAWA regime based both on economic and ideological factors (2015-2018). This chronology involves an evolution of the theory of change orienting the design of SAWA reforms – which evolve from a low- to a high-stakes approach. The research sheds light also on the wide range of agents that have actively participated in the policy process – including both local actors (politicians, labour unions, academic researchers, philanthropic organizations) and global agents (international organizations). Finally, the study explores the intersection between the accountability, the privatization, and the global education industry agendas.
Jessop, B. (2010). Cultural political economy and critical policy studies. Critical Policy Studies, 3(3–4), 336–356. Pawson, R., & Tilley, N. (1997). Realistic Evaluation. London: SAGE Publications. Tansey, O. (2007). Process Tracing and Elite Interviewing: A Case for Non-probability Sampling. PS: Political Science & Politics, 40(4), 765–772.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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