07 SES 13 C, How to Defeat Embedded Exclusive Tradition in Education Systems: Can inclusion be a remedy for immigrants, refugees, and ethnic minorities?
In Serbia, as in many other SouthEast and Central European countries the most marginalized and discriminated against minority are the Roma. Participating in education, employment, and politics can become extremely challenging for them, if not impossible (Ringold, Orenstein & Wilkens, 2005; McGarry, 2012). As social integration policies primarily focus on increasing enrollment, segregation of Roma children in special schools and units, predominantly Roma classes or schools with substandard curricula remain largely an unnoticed albeit serious and sustained barrier to accessing quality education. Nowadays the mechanisms, complex logistics and organizational structure needed to successfully desegregate educational settings or act preventively are more known than ever before (Roma Education Fund, 2015; Kovač Cerović & Orlandić-Lukšić, 2016). Nevertheless, according to recent research (Bojadjijeva, 2015; Rostas, 2012; Brown, Dwyer, Martin, Scullion, Turley, 2015) segregation did not disappear during the Decade, but may have even increased and its mechanisms might be recreated to address newly emerging marginalized groups such as migrant children. In this paper we explore data from five recent studies conducted in Serbia to understand the underlying psychological, social and educational structures of segregation. Serbia introduced nation-wide inclusive education in 2009 encompassing several measures for Roma integration as a priority for almost 10 years, however, many indicators show a shift in segregation patterns because of new policies, instead of their steady decline. While statistical data register decreases of Roma students in special schools, they still show overrepresentation in special classes, and an overuse of Individual Education Plans for Roma. Stories and letters of Roma Pedagogical Assistants narrate persuasively about discrimination, Roma NGOs’ assess the most frequent types of segregation in education as sitting in the back row and the main reasons for segregation stereotypes of school staff. High social distance was also found between Roma and non-Roma students. Additionally, recent data about education of migrant students in Serbia show an unfolding trend to include migrant students into schools with already high percentage of Roma students. These findings call for rethinking both desegregation and inclusive education policies and their viability in an education context burdened by discrimination that is not duly accounted for.
Bojadjijeva, A. (2015). Roma Inclusion Index. Budapest, Hungary: Decade of Roma Inclusion Secretariat Foundation. Brown, P., Dwyer, P., Martin, P., Scullion, L., & Turley, H. (2015). Rights, responsibilities and redress. Research on Policy and Practice for Roma Inclusion in Ten Member States. Research Report. Brussels: European Commission. Daiute, C. & Kovač Cerović, T. (2017). Minority Teachers – Roma in Serbia – Narrate Education Reform. Belgrade: Institute for psychology. Kovač Cerović, T. & Orlandić-Lukšić, T. (2016). Prevention of segregation in education, development of inclusive school enrolment policies and desegregation of schools (in Serbian). Belgrade: Office of the High Representative for Equity. McGarry, A. (2012). Who speaks for Roma?: Political Representation of a Transnational Minority Community. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. Ringold, D., Orenstein, M. A., & Wilkens, E. (2005). Roma in an expanding Europe: Breaking the poverty cycle. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Roma Education Fund (2015). Making Desegregation Work. Retrieved on July 3, 2017 from http://www.romaeducationfund.org/sites/default/files/publications/desegregation_toolkit__2015_web.pdf. Rostas, J. (Ed.) (2012). Ten years after: A history of Roma school desegregation in Central and Eastern Europe. Budapest-New York: Central European University Press.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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