04 SES 17 C, Doing Inclusive Educational Research in the Tensional Field of Inclusion and Exclusion
Within inclusive education research in German speaking countries, inclusion has been constructed as desirable absence of exclusion; as an egalitarian space, in which individuals, regardless of abilities, origins, or gender are recognised in the same, empowering way (Hinz 2002). Vice versa, exclusion has been conceptualised as state of isolation of certain subjects, segregated from other human beings. These normative readings have proven to be useful and successful in the political struggle against disabling structures and practices in schools. However, such rigid and rather static notions are not able to grasp the complexities and the messiness of interactions in everyday mainstream school life. As I will show in my paper, (social) space concepts can be connected to the spatial metaphors linked to the terms in- and exclusion, but offer more nuanced ways of researching the interlinked processes relating to these concepts. Following thoughts of Foucault (1994) and Martina Löw (2015), spaces are constructed by positionings and self-positionings of subjects. These positionings (re-)produce difference, but also belonging, constructing fluid spaces of in- and exclusion, which sometimes even overlap (Buchner 2017). In my presentation, I will refer to empirical data, generated within a participatory research project at 7 Lower Secondary Schools in Vienna. Using the theoretical matrix outlined above, I will examine differing processes of in- and exclusion in schools - and how they relate to each other. In the first ethnographic collage (Richter & Friebertshäuser 2012), teachers mark certain students as 'not normal' by practices of difference. These social positionings are reinforced by spatial practices, separating students from their peers and positioning them at the margins of the classroom or, in some cases, outside of the classroom. Analysing maps and field notes from participant observations of school grounds, I will examine how students 'react' on the spatial positionings within classrooms by (re-)producing these but also by creating spaces, in which positionings are re-negotiated, pointing to complex and intertwined processes of in- and exclusion at multiple layers. The second collage is about the fluid positionings of a student, labelled as having SEN, who creates temporary spaces of belonging at the schoolyard, moving from peer to peer in a high frequency. These spatial practices of 'nomadic roaming' alternate with excluding positionings by some peers. Reconstructing classroom practices of ability grouping, I will analyse how these spaces of instruction relate to the positionings in the spheres of the schoolyard.
Buchner, Tobias (2017): "Ma' merkt auch, dass Maksim in der Klasse die Macht hat": Zur ‚inkludierenden' Wirkung hegemonialer Männlichkeit in den nicht inklusiven Räumen von Schule. In: Inklusion online 04/2017, https://www.inklusion-online.net/index.php/inklusion-online/article/view/451/338 (03.01.2018) Foucault, Michel (1994): Überwachen und Strafen. Die Geburt des Gefängnisses. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag Hinz, Andreas (2002): Von der Integration zur Inklusion- terminologisches Spiel oder konzeptionelle Weiterentwicklung? In: Zeitschrift für Heilpädagogik 53, http://bidok.uibk.ac.at/library/hinz-inklusion.html, (23.06.2017) Löw, Martina (2015): Raumsoziologie. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp (7th edition) Richter, Sophia & Friebertshäuser, Barbara (2012): Der schulische Trainingsraum - Ethnographische Collage als empirische, theoretische und methodologische Herausforderung. In: Friebertshäuser, Barbara u.a. (Hg.): Feld und Theorie. Herausforderungen erziehungswissenschaftlicher Ethnographie. Opladen: Barbara Budrich, 71-88
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