04 SES 17 C, Doing Inclusive Educational Research in the Tensional Field of Inclusion and Exclusion
The paper examines various types of classroom practices constructing and dealing with achievement-related differences between students and how they are related to processes of inclusion and exclusion. Two ways of observing and describing inclusive and exclusive processes are being differentiated. First, inclusion - from a normative perspective - can be described as the absence of any discrimination, marginalisation, and impediment of participation within classroom practices (Ainscow, 2008). Second, inclusion and exclusion - focusing on an analytical stance - are defined as sharing or not sharing the same implicit or tacit knowledge structuring everyday practices within social groups considered the primary source of sociality (Mannheim, 1982). The methodology is mainly based on the Praxeological Sociology of Knowledge (ibid; Bohnsack et al., 2010), which distinguishes two basic forms of knowledge: explicit and implicit forms. While the social production of achievement-related differences on the explicit level would be, for instance, the attribution of SEN as a formal code of assessment, the implicit or tacit knowledge structures the performative way of dealing with the formal code. Following the principles of comparative analysis, the sample consists of four classes at 7th and 8th grade (14-15-year old students), differentiated by different school types: two secondary schools with an inclusive education approach and two non-inclusive grammar schools (Gymnasium), both located in the German speaking part of Switzerland. In addition, contrasting school subjects have been investigated: Mathematics, German Language, and Art. Based on an ethnographic approach, classroom interactions have been video-recorded. The video analysis is based on the Documentary Method aiming at reconstructing both the implicit knowledge of the investigated as well as of the investigators by analysing the sequential and the simultaneous structure of the video data and their interconnection (Bohnsack et al., 2010). The typology of classroom practices constructing and dealing with achievement-related differences between students and their relation to processes of inclusion and exclusion presented in this paper mainly show similarities among the school types, but differences between the school subjects. Regarding the latter, differences can be found in the ways whether and how achievement-related differences based on a hierarchical order ("low performers" vs. "high performers") are made public inside the classroom and whether and how students are "totally identified" by gradation or "degradation" (Garfinkel, 1967). This also touches the question of power in pedagogical organisations such as schools, which will also be discussed in the paper.
Ainscow, M. (2008). Teaching for diversity. The next big challenge. In F. M. Connelly, M. F. He, & J. A. Phillion (ed.), The Sage Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction. Los Angeles, 240-258. Bohnsack, R. (2017). Konjunktiver Erfahrungsraum, Regel und Organisation. In: Vogd, Werner; Amling, Steffen (ed.), Dokumentarische Organisationsforschung. Opladen, Berlin, & Toronto, 229-255. Bohnsack, R., Pfaff, N., & Weller, V. (ed.) (2010): Qualitative Analysis and Documentary Method in International Education Research. Opladen & Farmington Hills. Garfinkel, H. (1967): Conditions of Successful Degradation Ceremonies. In: J.G. Manis/B.N. Meltzer (ed.), Symbolic Interaction. Boston, 205-212. Mannheim, K. (1982). Structures of thinking. London.
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