04 SES 14 C, Analyzing Spatial Practices in Relation to Inclusion/Exclusion in Different Educational Settings
Inclusive education is about generating learning environments, in which all students can be educated relating to their individual dispositions and needs (Blecker & Boakes 2010). Thus, inclusive educators should possess the necessary teaching skills and techniques, responding to the differing abilities of students (Danforth 2014). Besides academic learning, teachers should create inclusive spaces, fostering the social learning of students as well (Black-Hawkins et al. 2011). Referring to these normative aims of inclusive education, I will examine in my paper, how spatial practices of teachers relate to spatial practices of peers in different locations of schools, such as schoolyards. Following thoughts of Foucault (1994) and Martina Löw (2015), spaces are constructed by specific practices, which can be understood as positionings and self-positionings of subjects. These positionings refer to discourses of difference (and, thus, (re-)produce difference), but also belonging; constructing fluid, relating spaces of in- and exclusion, which sometimes even overlap in the spheres of schools (Buchner 2017, Holt 2004). In my presentation, I will refer to empirical data, generated within a participatory research project at seven Lower Secondary Schools in Vienna/Austria. Using the theoretical matrix outlined above, I will present three case studies, illustrating different ‘doings’ of inclusive education in three different classes. Within the case studies, I will first reconstruct spatial practices of teachers occurring within specific didactical settings (e.g. collaborative learning) and educational settings (e.g. Jena Plan) – and how these relate to ability expectations. Second, I will explore how peers (re-)produce, but also renegotiate these spatial positionings outside of the ‘walls of the classroom’, especially at schoolyards. Results show that didactical settings have a strong impact on sociality between peers, ranging from (re-)productions of the ‘ableist divide’ (Campbell 2009) to rather inclusive spaces of belonging. At the end of my presentation, I will conclude with suggestions for teacher education.
Black-Hawkins, Kristine, Florian, Lani & Rouse, Martyn (2011). Achievement and inclusion in schools London: Routledge Blecker, Norma S. & Boakes, Norma J. (2010): Creating a learning environment for all children: are teachers able and willing? In: International Journal of Inclusive Education 14(5), 435-447 Buchner, Tobias (2017): „Ma’ merkt auch, dass Maksim in der Klasse die Macht hat“: Zur ‚inkludierenden’ Wirkung hegemonialer Männlichkeit in den nicht inklusiven Räumen von Schule. In: Inklusion online 04/2017, https://www.inklusion-online.net/index.php/inklusion-online/article/view/451/338 (03.01.2018) Danforth, Scot (2014): Becoming a Great Inclusive Educator. New York: Peter Lang Foucault, Michel (1994): Überwachen und Strafen. Die Geburt des Gefängnisses. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag Holt, Louise (2004): Childhood disability and ability: (Dis)ableist geographies of mainstream primary schools. Disability Studies Quarterly 24(3), URL: http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/506/683 (18.01.2018) Löw, Martina (2015): Raumsoziologie. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp (7th edition)
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