01 SES 14 C, Professional Development and Organisational Change
In recent years, methods for professional development of teachers have increasingly used technological innovations. Video footage of lessons has been studied as a tool for teacher training and professional development (van Es & Sherin, 2010; van Es, 2012; Marsh & Mitchell, 2014), but is not currently used in ongoing debriefing and learning of the teaching profession. While some teachers rely on traditional teaching methods and do not collaborate much with professional peers, Professional Learning Communities allow teachers to meet and work together towards common goals (Stoll, Bolam, McMahon, Wallace & Thomas, 2006).
Video clubs are a platform that combines the advantages of technology with the sharing-based character of Professional Learning Communities, where teachers meet to watch and discuss their classroom videos (Sherin & Han, 2004). This method has been studied in the context of its effects on teachers' performance (van Es & Sherin, 2010), on the structure and content of group discussions (Borko, Jacobs, Eitljorg & Pittman, 2008), and with regard to differences between self-video learning and peer-video learning (Borko, Koellner, Jacobs & Seago, 2011). Despite the evolving research, the emotional and organizational implications of participation in video clubs and their impact on the teachers and the organizational culture of the school have not yet been thoroughly studied.
"Shamayim" ("sky" in Hebrew) is an Israeli business organization with social goals, which works to assimilate the methods of learning and questioning derived from the Israeli Air Force (IAF) into various areas in the public and private sectors. The model proposed by the "Shamayim" organization combines teachers' personal learning, based on guided viewing of their own videos and a personal inquiry section, with a weekly learning forum similar to a video club.
In this context, this research was based on previous studies that showed that video clubs are able to create a sense of empowerment among teachers, as well as enabling their professional development during the course (Avidov-Ungar & Arviv-Elyashiv, 2018; Avidov-Ungar, 2018; Lee & Nie, 2014). Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study is to examine the extent to which the "Shamayim" program may serve as an effective organizational learning mechanism in school, as a means of shaping an innovative learning culture, and as a component in teacher empowerment. The central research question is: what are the implications of "Shamayim" program on teachers' empowerment and the organizational culture in the school, as perceived by the teachers?
The importance of this research stems from its contribution to the relatively limited knowledge-base regarding the use of video in teachers' professional development. Second, this research is one of the first to focus on aspects of teacher empowerment and the school's organizational culture in this context. The findings of the study can inform the design of more effective teacher professional development processes, and may also help in adapting the unique culture of inquiry and learning developed in the Israeli Air Force to be used also in the education system.
This is a qualitative study aimed at understanding the phenomenon of teachers' professional development through a unique case study of a program based on the Israeli Air Force's interrogation culture. The study traces the perceptions of teachers participating in this program from their unique perspective (Creswell & Poth, 2018). Using qualitative methodology enables a holistic description of the components of the studied phenomenon and derives the research findings within their original context (Marshall & Rossman, 2016). It is therefore appropriate for this study, which examines teachers' perceptions on the "Shamayim" program and its various effects. Participants In 2016, the "Shamayim" program was administered in 20 Israeli schools in various phases, of which four schools carried out both phases of the program. Of these four schools, three were selected on a geographical basis and participated in the study. These schools included different age groups (elementary, middle and high school) from different educational streams (two religious and one state school). One is a vocational school and two are mainstream academic schools; schools are located in different districts of Israel (North, Central and South). Twelve teachers from these three schools participated in the study, six of them were men and six were women. Participants included five subject teachers, four homeroom teachers and three teachers who also held administrative roles. The teachers' teaching experience ranged from 3 years to 23 years (M=13.33, SD = 8.18). Instrument A semi-structured in-depth interview was conducted with each of the teachers who agreed to participate in the study, to elicit the widest possible range of considerations and implications for different aspects of professional development processes, including those that the researchers had not contemplated in advance. The interviews were conducted after the school day or during teachers' free hours, in an empty classroom or in the teachers' lounge, and lasted approximately 30 minutes. Data Analysis The interviews were processed using a subject analysis technique that focuses on content (Jovchelovitch & Bauer, 2000). The interviewers' statements were transcribed and mapped into single units of meaning, in order to identify repeated patterns (Bazeley, 2013). The analysis process was circular, and ranged from extracting categories and themes from the interview transcripts, to finding relevant statements for the extracted categories and themes, i.e., a combination of data-driven coding and theory-driven coding (Bernard & Ryan, 2009). This process was carried out manually by the first researcher and reviewed by the second.
Three themes emerged from the analysis: the program's main characteristics as perceived by the teachers, teacher empowerment and organizational culture. Teachers emphasized the difference between the personal and shared situations in the program. They noted the openness to give and receive feedback in the learning forum, but unfortunately it was treated more as a support group than a professional learning community. Extensive use of video technology was highly influential for some teachers, as it objectively captures the classroom events, allowing the rerunning of sections back and forth. Finally, the debriefing method was perceived as focused and purposeful, and encouraged accountability. Teachers also reported that by participating in the program, they underwent both personal and professional empowerment. The program demanded their active participation and was delivered by external guides, and it helped empowering the teachers in a way different from other programs. The instructor's role was seen as very influential, characterized by lack of judgment and a kind attitude. Of the six factors of teacher empowerment (Short & Rinehart, 1992), it seems that the program contributed mainly to the teachers' professional and personal growth, status and impact. Additionally, the teachers noted implications of the "Shamayim" program for the school's organizational culture. It seems that openness and sharing pervaded the school as a result of participation in this program, and that the debriefing jargon (What, Why, How can we improve) was widely used between teachers after the program ended. However, the debriefing methodology and its accompanying practices were not fully embedded in the school culture. Since teacher empowerment was found to increase the capacity of school organizational learning (Marks & Louis, 1999), the "Shamayim" program can create a magic circle where positive effect on teacher empowerment would facilitate easier implementation of the learning mechanisms it provides for the school.
Avidov Ungar, O., & Arviv-Elyashiv, R., (2018). Teachers' perceptions of empowerment and chances of promotion to in-school leadership positions during educational reforms. International Journal of Educational Management. 32(1), 155-170. Avidov-Ungar, O., (2018). Empowerment patterns among teachers in leadership positions involving ICT Implementation in schools. Leadership and Policy in Schools. 77(1), 138-163. Bazeley, P. (2013). Qualitative data analysis: Practical strategies.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Bernard, H.R., & Ryan, G.W. (2009). Analyzing qualitative data: Systematic approaches.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Borko, H., Jacobs, J. K., Eiteljorg, E., & Pittman, M. E. (2008). Video as a tool for fostering productive discussions in mathematics professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(2), 417-436. Borko, H., Koellner, K., Jacobs, J., & Seago, N. (2011). Using video representations of teaching in practice-based professional development programs. ZDM, 43(1), 175-187. Creswell, J.W.,& Poth, C.N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry research design - choosing among five approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Jovchelovitch, S. & Bauer, M.W. (2000). Narrative interviewing. In M.W. Bauer & G. Gaskell (Eds.) Qualitative researching with text, image and sound(pp. 57-74). London: Sage Publications. Lee, A. N., & Nie, Y. (2014). Understanding teacher empowerment: Teachers' perceptions of principal's and immediate supervisor's empowering behaviours, psychological empowerment and work-related outcomes. Teaching and Teacher Education, 41, 67-79. Marks, H. M., & Louis, K. S. (1999). Teacher empowerment and the capacity for organizational learning. Educational Administration Quarterly, 35(5), 707-750. Marsh, B., & Mitchell, N. (2014). The role of video in teacher professional development. Teacher Development, 18(3), 403-417. Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (2016). Designing qualitative research (6th edition). LA: Sage Publications. Sherin, M. G., & Han, S. Y. (2004). Teacher learning in the context of a video club. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20(2), 163-183. Short, P. M., & Rinehart, J. S. (1992). School participant empowerment scale: Assessment of level of empowerment within the school environment. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52(4), 951-960. Stoll, L., Bolam, R., McMahon, A., Wallace, M., & Thomas, S. (2006). Professional learning communities: A review of the literature. Journal of educational change, 7(4), 221-258. van Es, E. A. (2012). Examining the development of a teacher learning community: The case of a video club. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(2), 182-192. van Es, E. A., & Sherin, M. G. (2010). The influence of video clubs on teachers’ thinking and practice. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education,13(2), 155-176.
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