04 SES 04 E, "I Am Not A School Teacher, But...": Inclusion From Alternative Professional Viewpoints
When it is thought that each student is special, educational practices go beyond traditional methods or practices and become more inclusive by taking into account the special circumstances of individuals. The superior characteristics of the students give a different dimension to their educational experiences, and the inadequacies of the students or special health problems necessitate difference in education. Students who have been hospitalized for a long time and continue their treatment have such a need. One of the best practices reflecting this particular situation is "Hospital Classes" [General Directorate of Special Education and Guidance Services, 2015].
Staying at the hospital for a long time may have a negative impact on children's health. Researchers state that negative situations such as regression, fear of separation, sleep anxiety, eating problems and aggression in particular are encountered in hospitalized children. Studies show that in addition to physical negativity, some cognitive problems such as learning disability, memory loss, and inability to speak can occur on these children (Butler & Mulhern, 2005; Patenaude & Kupst, 2005; Prevatt, Heffer & Lowe, 2000; Vannatta, Gartstein & Short, 1998). Children may have various concerns due to physical factors and therefore may be reluctant to go to school. As a result, children tend to lack absenteeism, reduce learning opportunities, and academic failure is inevitable (Prevatt et al., 2000; Vannatta et al., 1998). In addition, the disease situation causes social and psychological risks not only in children but also in family members in the progressive processes (Fazlıoğlu, Hocaoğlu & Sönmez, 2010; Gönener & Görak, 2009).
It can be argued that the education service provided in hospitals makes children feel valuable and has a positive effect on child psychology. Atay, Eras and Ertem (2011) show in their studies that hospital classes are one of the implementations that can be used to prevent psychosocial stress in pediatric patients' hospital experience. The dissemination of hospital classes that have positive effects on child health and solving educational and managerial problems for this practice is seen as important in terms of providing education opportunity for each individual and education policies of the country (Baykoç Dönmez, 2006).
Hospital classes with positive effects on the student's subjective well-being (Atay, Eras & Ertem, 2011) can turn into a source of problems when they cannot be managed well, and create negative perceptions on the student's individual and academic life. Işıktekiner and Altun (2011) identified problems with the physical condition of these classes, the interaction between education and health personnel and the guidance and supervision practices in these schools in their research on problems and experiences in hospital classrooms. When all these problem areas are considered together, the inadequacy of the physical space, the failure of the tables and the desks in the classes to respond to the student's needs, the weakness of communication between the teacher and the hospital staff, and the limited knowledge of the supervisors and guides of the hospital classrooms can be expressed as the main problems (Işıktekiner & Altun, 2011).
In this study, it is aimed to examine the education in the hospital which is an implementation supporting the approach education for each, to determine the situation related to the quality of education and to reveal the administrative problems. The following questions will be tried to be answered to achieve this goal:
What is the current situation regarding the quality of education and managerial situation in hospital classrooms?
What are the suggestions for improving the quality of education in hospital classrooms and improving the managerial processes or practices?
In this study, we will in depth examine the educational services offered to students in hospital classes in Turkey. In this direction, the aim of this study is to explore the views and experiences of students, teachers, school administrators, health personnel and families related to the phenomenon of hospital classes. We will use phenomenology design to accomplish this aim. In phenomenology design, the researcher focuses on a particular phenomenon, collects data through indepth interviews with participants, and then identifies what is common to their perceptions (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009). In this study, we will work on hospital classes phenomeon. We will prefer maximum diversity sampling method from purposive sampling methods to gather different perspectives on hospital classes. Therefore, we will try to discover the experiences of students, teachers, parents, health personnel, and school administrators being students in hospital classes. We will use the semi-structured interview technique as a data collection tool. We will conduct face-to-face and focus group interviews in order to better understand their opinions and experiences. In this study, we will apply some strategies to achieve valid and reliable results. To increase the validity of the research, we will apply strategies such as long-term interaction, deep-focus data collection, detailed description, triangulation, expert review and participant confirmation. Moreover, in terms of reliability, we will use consistency review and confirmation review (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2016). However, we will discuss the role of the researcher under one heading to indicate where the researcher stands in the research process and explain its role in detail.
The aim of this study is to provide comprehensive and in-depth data from the participants in the context of education and training and administration for the educational practices in hospitals. It is expected that the data obtained from teachers, students, parents, administrators and health personnel will provide explanations for different dimensions of education at hospital. The students who directly experience the problem and who are in the focus of education will have different views on the subject of education and the views of hospital staff about the subject, who are not directly involved in the educational processes but touching the student's life, may differ from the students’ views. Similar comments can be made for data obtained from other the participants. The data obtained from the research are expected to reveal many sub-dimensions related to both education and management at hospitals and to present a comprehensive model to the researchers. It is expected that the results of the research will strengthen the understanding of education for each and contribute to the subjective well-being of the students who are not able to get their education in the way that every student gets because of their health problems. At the end of the research, suggestions will be put forward for the practitioners, researchers and policy makers in the field.
Atay, G., Eras, Z., & Ertem, İ. (2011). Çocuk hastaların hastane yatışları sırasında gelişimlerinin desteklenmesi [Developmental support of children during their hospitalizations]. Çocuk Dergisi [Journal of Child], 11(1), 1-4. Baykoç Dönmez, N. (2006). Hastanede çocuk ve genç [Child and young at hospital]. Ankara: Gazi. Bolat, E. Y. (2018). Süreğen hastalığı olan çocuklar ve hastane okulları [Children with long term disease and schools at hospital]. Milli Eğitim Dergisi [Journal of National Education], 47(218), 163-186. Butler, R. W., & Mulhern, R. K. (2005). Neurocognitive interventions for children and adolescents surviving cancer. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30, 65-78. Fazlıoğlu, K., Hocaoğlu, Ç., & Sönmez, M. F. (2010). Çocukluk çağı epilepsisinin aileye etkisi [Impact of childhood epilepsy on the family]. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar [Current Approaches in Psychiatry], 2(2), 190-205. Gönener, D., & Görak, G. (2009). Okul yaş grubu çocukların hastane ve hastalığı ile ilgili bilgilendirme durumlarının endişe kaynakları ile etkileşimi [The interaction between the informing situation of the school age group children about the hospital and their illness, and their anxiety reasons]. Gaziantep Tıp Dergisi [Gaziantep Medical Journal], 15(1), 41-48. Işıktekiner, F. S., & Altun, S. A. (2011). Problems and issues at hospital schools. Education and Science, 36(161), 318-331. Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (1993). How to design and evaluate research in education (Vol. 7). New York: McGraw-Hill. Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2016). Nitel araştırma yöntemleri [Qualitative research methods]. Ankara: Seçkin. Özel Eğitim ve Rehberlik Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü [General Directorate of Special Education and Guidance Services]. (2015). Hastanede eğitim hizmetleri [Training services at hospital]. Retrieved from 10.01.2019 http://orgm.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2015_07/29123929_mebhastanesnflar.pdf Patenaude, A. F., & Kupst M. J. (2005). Psychosocial functioning in pediatric. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30, 9-27. Prevatt, F., Heffer, R. W., & Lowe, P. A. (2000). A review of school reintegration programs for children with cancer. Journal of School Psychology, 38(5), 447-467. T.C. Aile Çalışma ve Sosyal Hizmetler Bakanlığı [Ministry of Family Labor and Social Services] (2018). Engelli ve yaşlı bireylere ilişkin istatistiki bilgiler [Statistical information on disabled and elderly individuals]. https://eyh.aile.gov.tr/engelli-ve-yasli-bireylere-iliskin-istatistiki-bilgiler Vannatta, K., Gartstein, M. A., & Short, A. (1998). A controlled study of peer relationships of children surviving brain tumors: Teacher, peer, and self ratings. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 23(5), 279-287. Welsh Assembly Government. (2010). Access to education and support for children and young people with medical needs (Publication No: 003/2010). Retrieved from http://learning.gov.wales/docs/learningwales/publications/131016-access-to-education-for-children-with-medical-needs-en.pdf
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