ERG SES C 04, Interactive Poster Session
Interactive Poster Session
Procrastination is defined as delaying or postponing something in English dictionary (Stevenson, A., 2013). According to Ferrari and Joseph (2018), it can also be expressed as a habit postponement, such as starting or finishing work, despite its negative consequences. In a different definition, postponement is defined as the lack of motivation of the individual due to poor time management, and the failure of the individual to perform a given job (Senecal, Koestner & Vallerand, 1995). General procrastination is defined as postponement of behaviors that should be done in daily life, while academic procrastination especially in schools where the students delay their homework and exam (Haycock, McCarthy ve Sky, 1998). In addition, there are many tasks and responsibilities that students have to take in university life. One of the most important of these responsibilities is that they fulfill their academic duties and achieve the expected level of success (Albay, Gizir, 2011). In the research conducted by Ferrari, O’Callaghan and Newbegin’s (2005), 70% of the students were found to have academic procrastination behavior. In a similar study conducted in Turkey, since postponement was detected in 52% of the students (Uzun Özer, 2009). The widespread occurrence of procrastination behavior among university students also causes academic failure, indicating the seriousness of the problem. Academic procrastination adversely affects academic performance and that students with academic procrastination have a lower academic achievement (Balkis and Duru, 2010). The results of the research on this topic show that students who had a tendency to postpone had lower GPA than those who did not have postponement tendencies (Çakıcı, 2003). Since there is not much research on notes and procrastination habits, the research done by Uzun Özer and colleagues (2009) shows that there is a positive relationship between grades and procrastination like the higher grades, the higher procrastination level.
It is also known that the postponement problem among university students varies according to gender (Berber Çelik and Odacı, 2015). Academic procrastination of gender by Uzun-Özer and et al (2009) the effect of the academic postponement is quite important when examining the effect on and an understanding of the consequences. There are studies showing that female students have more academic procrastination tendencies (Shahnawaz, Wazid add Gupta, 2016) or male students have more academic procrastination than female students (Çıkrıkçı and Erzen, 2016). Jackson (2002) states that men perceive academic studies as feminine and postpone their academic studies such as prepare homework. Therefore, there are controversial results in the literature on gender-based differences in academic procrastination (Çıkrıkçı and Erzen, 2016). This situation is mostly examined by considering cultural factors. Cüceloğlu (2007) said that while children are raised by their families, they are affected by the gender roles of their society and cause them to be different in their behavior. B.U.Özer, et all (2013) suggests that due to cultural differences, academic procrastination and cultural factors should be emphasized in future studies.
The aim of this study is to determine the academic procrastination levels of university students. For this purpose, the relationship between academic procrastination levels and academic average scores of academic students and academic procrastination levels according to gender. Research Model This study was designed in accordance with the quantitative research technique in order to compare and explain the current situation. Inferential research is used to generalize this situation by revealing the ideas, thoughts or attitudes of a large group of people in the past or present. Also, in this quantitative study, a survey method was used. In this way, more participants were reached to increase the likelihood of generating results for the population concerned. Study Group The universe of the study consisted of undergraduate students studying in universities in Turkey. The study group consisted of 406 university students (308 women and 98 men) attending universities in different faculties during the 2018-2019 fall semester. Data Collection Tools First of all to get general information about them is collected. Demographic variables were obtained from the participants with quantitative data collection technique. This technique was used to access the formal information of the participants. A scale was preferred to obtain quantitative data. After that, the scale was applied to detect for academic procrastination. The reason why quantitative data is preferred in this study is that it offers measurable and demonstrable data. Due to the limitation of the sample and the specifics of the subject, various limitations affected the data collection method. However, Academic Procrastination Scales was selected for the participants. Academic Success: GPA is the most commonly used measure of academic success. Academic Procrastination Scale: Academic Procrastination Scale was developed for thesis purposes by Deniz Çiğdem Çakıcı (2003). The scale has 19 questions about academic procrastination and rated on a Likert scales (1-not represent, 5-strongly represent). Limitations In this study, it is necessary to reach many universities in order to generalize and this leads to limitations. Reach all university in Turkey is a difficult situation in some respects. Some limitations are as follows, 1. Measuring academic procrastination 2. Limited time for this study 3. Finding participants for research
The finding from the current study noticed that (a) academic procrastination was adversely associated with academic success (GPA), (b) there aren't any association with gender differences. These findings confirm previous research indicating that academic procrastination is adversely related with academic performance (Balkis & Duru, 2017; Kim & Seo, 2015; Richardson et al., 2012; Rotenstein, et al. 2009; Steel, 2007). First, the t-test result shows that there is no significant difference in the academic postponement of gender [t (331) =.741, p >.01]. The previous study also noticed that there are gender differences in the relationships between academic procrastination, some research results show that male students are more likely to postpone academic tasks and assignments than female (Özer et al. 2009), or female students have more academic procrastination tendencies (Shahnawaz, Wazid add Gupta, 2016). In other words, while the results of the past research show differences between the genders, it is noteworthy that academic postponement habits have no gender difference in this research. This difference may be due to the fact that the difference between gender in the academic sense has been eliminated. Second, the Pearson correlation result noticed that there is a negative correlation between academic procrastination and GPA in university students (r = -.201, p < 01). However, this analysis was performed with the answers of 378 out of 405 participants, because it is available in freshman participants. If the student's academic procrastination grade is low, the overall GPA is high, so s/he can deliver the homework that s/he needs to deliver on time and create enough time to study her or his exams and organize time. Although the sample size of this study allowed the generalization of the findings, further research is needed to determine the factors related to gender differences in the relationship between academic procrastination, academic success, and possible causes.
Bilge Uzun Ozer (2005). Academic Procrastination: Prevalence, Self-reported Reasons, Gender Difference and It's Relation with Academic Achievement. Bilge Uzun Özer, Mesut Saçkes, Bruce W. Tuckman (December 2013). Psychometric Properties of The Tuckman Procrastination Scale in a Turkish Sample. Psychological Reports, 113(3), pp 84-874. Carolyn Jackson (2002). Laddishness and Self-worth Protection Strategy. The Journal of Gender and Education, 14(1), pp 37-50. Çiğdem Berber Çelik, Hatice Odacı (July 2015). Explanation of Academic Procrastination by Some Personal and Psychological Variables. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 30(3), pp 31-47. Cuceloğlu, D. (2007). İnsan ve Davranışı. Istanbul: Remzi Kitabevi. Deniz Çiğdem Çakıcı (2003). Lise ve Üniversite Öğrencilerinde Genel Erteleme ve Akademik Erteleme Davranışının İncelenmesi. Ferrari, J. R., & Scher, S. J. (2000). Toward an Understanding of Academic and Nonacademic Tasks Procrastinated by Students: The Use of Daily Logs. Psychology in the Schools, 37(4), 359-366. Ferrari, J. R., Roster, C. (September 2017). Delaying Disposing: Examining the Relationship between Procrastination and Clutter across Generations. Current Psychology, 37(2), pp 426-431. Ferrari, J.R., O’Callaghan, J., Newbegin. (2005). Prevalence of Procrastination in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia: Arousal and Avoidance Delays among Adults. North American Journal of Psychology, 7(1), pp 1-6. Haycock, L.A., Mccarthy, P., Skay, C.L. (1998). Procrastination in College Students: The Role of Self-efficacy and Anxiety, Journal of Counselling and Development, 76(3), pp 317-324. Karen K. Kirst-Ashman; Grafton H. Hull, JR.(2016). Empowerment Series: Generalist Practice with Organizations and Communities, 7th Edition. Kim, K. R., & Seo, E. H. (2015). The Relationship Between Procrastination and Academic Performance: A Metaanalysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, pp 26-33. Murat Balkıs, Erdinç Duru (2010). The Role of General and Performance Self Esteem in Relation Academic Procrastination and Academic Achievement, Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 39(173), pp 274-287. Senecal, C., Koestner, R., Vallerand, R.J. (1995). Self-regulation and Academic Procrastination. The Journal of Social Psychology, 135(5), pp 607-619. Sinem Evin Akbay & Cem Ali Gizir (June 2010), Cinsiyete Göre Üniversite Öğrencilerinde Akademik Erteleme Davranışı: Akademik Güdülenme, Akademik Özyeterlik ve Akademik Yükleme Stillerinin Rolü. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 6(1), pp 60-78. Stevensen, A. (2013). Oxford Dictionary of English. (3. Baskı) Syeda Wasfeea Wazid, MD. Ghanzi Shanhnawaz, Dolly Gupta (2016). Procrastination among Students: The Role of Gender, Perfectionism and Self-Esteem.
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