26 SES 16 B, Leadership and School Development in Diverse, Underperforming Contexts: Evidence-based policies, values and practices in the U.S., Sweden, Germany and Australia
Previous research has shown that cultural values affect the way people think and act (Author2, 2018, 2019). More specifically, in the organizational setting of schools, it was found that certain cultural dimensions affect teachers' perceptions (e.g., Sabri, 2012; Sabbagh, 2017), motivation to teach (Colleague and Author1, 2016), or intent to leave (Colleagues and Author2 2018). However, these studies did not consider how cultural values may influence development of an innovative climate. Based on Hofstede's (2001) model of cultural dimensions (i.e., individualism vs. collectivism; masculinity vs. femininity; uncertainty/avoidance; long term vs. short term; orientation and power distance), we sought to examine, first, the extent to which these dimensions affect teachers' perceptions of a climate of innovation. Second, to examine the moderating effect of visionary leadership between cultural dimensions and an innovative climate, which was not examined before. And finally, to compare the effect of teachers' values perceptions on innovation in Arab and Jewish national cultures, with their different cultural characteristics. Israeli Arabs have been described as belonging to a traditional collectivistic culture, with high power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity (Author2 2017), and Israeli Jews to a modern, "Western", individualistic culture (Smooha 2010), with an extremely small power distance (Pines and Zaidman 2003).
Previous research examining the relationship between leadership and climate for innovation (Sarros, Cooper & Santora, 2008) found that when leaders articulate a vision, it correlates positively with a climate for organizational innovation. We extended this examination to ascertain whether visionary leadership can moderate culture characteristics and an innovative climate.By influencing work's character, the inspirational visionary leader makes work appear as more stimulating and motivating. Followers of such leaders are likely to be more curious, open, and motivated to explore (Berson, Da'as, & Waldman, 2015; Conger & Kanungo, 1998).
In the current research, our main hypothesis was that teachers with a collectivist orientation who form strong connections between group members, and prioritize their group's wellbeing and group goals, perceive their schools as having low masculinity and a low power distance, with low short-term orientation (high long-term orientation), demonstrating a relatively high tendency to save or invest for the future with low uncertainty avoidance will perceive their school climate as more flexible, adaptive, entrepreneurial and innovative in meeting the changing demands of today’s environment (Fidan & Oztürk, 2015; Sarros, Cooper, & Santora, 2008). The second hypothesis was that visionary leaders would strengthen the relationship between these cultural values (collectivism, low power distance and masculinity, low short term, low uncertainty avoidance) and a climate of innovation. Visionary leaders were found to be a moderating variable in previous research. Author 2 and Colleagues (2018) found that visionary leadership moderated the relationship between teachers' perceptions of schools' absorptive capacity (i.e. an organization's ability to “identify, assimilate and exploit knowledge from the environment") and teachers' absenteeism. High absorptive capacity and high visionary leadership decrease teachers' absenteeism.
Two hundred sixty-eight teachers from all over Israel participated in the study. 49.6% were Jews, and 50.37% were Arabs. 16.7% were male and 82.9% female. 49.1% of the participants possessed a B.A. degree, 43.5% an M.A. degree. The mean age was 37.3 (S.D.= 9.36). The mean tenure in teaching was 12.18 years (S.D.= 8.41). the mean tenure in their schools was 9.72 years (S.D.=7.32). Measures The tools for measurement of the cultural values constructs were derived from Dorfman and Howell (1988), Hofstede (1980), Hofstede and Bond (1988) and Hofstede et al. (2008). We measured (1) collectivism (Mean=3.12): an example item: "Taking other people's needs and feelings into account when making a decisions". (2) power distance (mean= 2.64): an example item: " Respecting people with authority because of their position". (3) masculinity (mean= 2.23); an example item: "preferring to have a man in a high-level position rather than a woman"; (4) short- term orientation (mean=3.12); an example item: " Believing in absolutes of good and evil"; (5) uncertainty avoidance (2.63); an example item:" Preferring work that has detailed standard operating procedures spelled out"; (6) climate of innovation. we used the measuring tool of Scott and Bruce, 1994). This tool includes two factors—Support for Innovation and Resource Supply—with 22 items, including 16 items relating to "support for innovation" and 6 items relating to "resource supply". In the current research, and in consistence with the research aims, the 22 items were averaged to yield a summary score representing the climate of innovation (Mean =3.35; S.D.=0.63), the alpha level for reliability in the current study was 0.87. (7) Inspirational/visionary leadership. We used the inspirational/visionary scales from the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-Form 5X; Bass & Avolio, 1997). These scales consist of 12 items from the "inspirational motivation" and "idealized influence" (behavior and attributes) scales of the MLQ. Teachers rated each behavior/attribution on a 5-point frequency scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (frequently, if not always). Control variables We controlled for the effects of the teachers' years of teaching, a variable that has been shown to be potentially relevant to school climate (e.g., Bradshaw, Koth, Bevans, Ialongo, & Leaf, 2008).
The results of structural equation modeling showed that there were negative correlations between innovative climate and masculinity (β =-0.17; p<0.01); and uncertainty avoidance (β = -0.11; p<0.05), and positive correlations with collectivism and innovative climate (β =0.16; p<0.01). However, there were no correlations with short-term orientation (β =-0.06) and innovative climate and between the latter and power distance (β =0.02). The model showed good fit to the data CFI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.04. The results for the moderation of the cultural dimensions and innovative climate by visionary leadership, showed that only the interaction between visionary leadership and power distance was significant (β =-0.71; p<0.05); uncertainty avoidance (β =-0.80; p<0.05); and the other interactions between cultural dimensions and visionary leadership were non-significant to predict an innovative climate, with collectivism (β =0.59), masculinity (β =-0.34) and short- term orientation (β =-0.26). We compared the data derived from Jewish and Arab schools, representing different sectors within the Israeli education system. The hypothesized models showed a good fit of the model for the data. For Arab schools (CFI=0.96; RMSEA=0.06); for Jewish schools (CFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.04). In the Jewish school model: positive relation between collectivism and innovative climate (β =0.15; p<0.05), and negative correlation with masculinity (β =-0.19: p<0.05). In the Arab model, only negative relations with avoiding uncertainty (β =-0.02; p<0.05).
Author 2 (2017) Author 2 (2018) Author 2 (2018) Author 2 and Colleagues (2018) Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1997). Concepts of leadership. Leadership: Understanding the dynamics of power and influence in organizations, 3-22. Berson, Y., Da'as, R. A., & Waldman, D. A. (2015). How do leaders and their teams bring about organizational learning and outcomes? Personnel Psychology, 68(1), 79-108. Bradshaw, C. P., Koth, C. W., Bevans, K. B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). The impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462. Colleague and Author 1, 2016 Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1998). Charismatic leadership in organizations. Sage Publications. Fidan, T., & Oztürk, I. (2015). The relationship of the creativity of public and private school teachers to their intrinsic motivation and the school climate for innovation. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 905-914. Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: a meta-analysis. Journal of applied psychology, 87(2), 268. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's recent consequences: Using dimension scores in theory and research. International Journal of cross cultural management, 1(1), 11-17. McCharen, B., Song, J., & Martens, J. (2011). School innovation: The mutual impacts of organizational learning and creativity. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 39(6), 676-694. Pines, A. M., and N. Zaidman. 2003. “Israeli Jews and Arabs: Similarities and Differences in the Utilization of Social Support.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 34: 465–480. Sabri, H. A. (2012). Re-examination of Hofstede's work value orientations on perceived leadership styles in Jordan. International Journal of Commerce and Management, 22(3), 202-218. Sabbagh, C. (2017). Israeli Groups’ Entitlement to Social Rights: Views of Israeli Jewish and Arab Teachers. International Journal of Sociology, 47(4), 259-277. Sarros, J. C., Cooper, B. K., & Santora, J. C. (2008). Building a climate for innovation through transformational leadership and organizational culture. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15(2), 145-158. Scott, S. G., & Bruce, R. A. (1994). Determinants of innovative behavior: A path model of individual innovation in the workplace. Academy Of Management Journal, 37(3), 580-607. Smooha, S. 2010. Arab Jewish Relations in Israel. Washington, DC: United States Institute for Peace. http://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/resources/PW67_Arab-Jewish_Relations_ in_Israel. pdf (erişim: 08.12. 2013)
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