10 SES 05.5 PS, General Poster Session
General Poster Session
There has been a sharp increase in the number of novice teachers recruited for public schools in recent years in Japan. Data collected eight years ago showed seven times more novice teachers were hired than in the previous ten years in Tokyo (Tokyo Education Center: 2010). The recruitment status in the 2017 academic year shows that the number of newly recruited teachers is at its peak of mass hiring mainly in elementary schools in metropolitan areas (The Education Newspaper: 2017//www.kyobun.co.jp/kyosai_guidance_1/). To avoid decline in educational capability, therefore, measures to train young and novice teachers are required. However, due to a lack of mid-career teachers, even novice teachers with two to three years of experience have to play important roles at each school. Thus novice teachers need to gain an independent problem-solving ability, which cannot be hastily acquired.
In those circumstances, In Japan, most mentors are retired teachers who had worked as teachers for a long time. The ways of developing novice teachers depend on those mentors who are apt to force their successful past experiences on novice teachers (Goto: 2013). Some studies point out harmful effects of the mentoring system when the system totally relies on the mentors (Kanai: 2009). Such mentor system may, in effect, prevent the self-directed development of novice teachers (Ehrich: 2004). Based on these information, the author has identified the gap between the current mentoring system and the needs of the novice elementary school teachers who want to develop their own self-directed professional learning (Goto: 2013). In other words, while novice teachers are asking mentors for support to solve the problem that they are faced with, mentors still put emphasis on formal methods of instruction.
Design of Expansive Learning by Formative Intervention
Engeström (2007) presented a general design of developmental work research, which describes a process that centers on self-directed learning based on the needs of a practitioner to break through the difficulties in front of him/her that can promote development (Engestrӧm: 1991b,p.80). This learning activity theory is a theoretical framework of expansive learning that aims to create a problem-solving tool. This is a problem-solving model or guiding concept and a vision of problem-solving direction by interventions (formative intervention) that brings out the proactive action of practitioners through dialogue in a mutually negotiating manner to achieve the development of each practitioner.
This research applies the theory to novice teacher training. The intervention by a principal as a key factor is implemented so as to address the needs of the practitioners (novice teachers and senior teachers) and systematically and cooperatively provide substantial support. This study examined expansive learning where participants in the training, mainly novice teachers, discuss problem solution in a self-directed manner and mutually learn and improve based on the principal’s novice teacher training design (formative intervention). Specifically, the following four questions were studied:
(1) What is the meaning of all-teacher-participation novice teacher training?
(2) What is the quality of learning obtained from the training?
(3) What is qualitative change through the training?
(4) What is a viable design for all-teacher-participation novice teacher training?
In this study, I designed expansive learning in novice teacher trainings in collaboration with a Tokyo public elementary school principal. The trial novice teacher training was set, separately from the regular trainings provided by a mentor, to target all teachers while focusing on novice teachers. Novice teachers presented a trial lesson, and all other teachers participated as students. Then both novice and senior teachers discussed teaching methods based on the trial lessons. The principal provided mutual negotiation training where the novice teacher presented a lesson to senior teachers who role-played as elementary school students. Each novice teacher then answered questions and responded to ideas about the lesson that each had planned and presented (self-directed learning). Senior teachers provided ideas and suggestions from an elementary school student's perspective (reviewing their perspectives on teaching and teaching method). Purpose, participants and description of the training are as follows: ◇Purpose: Providing an emergent learning opportunity by designing an opportunity in which three novice teachers present lessons and senior teachers take elementary school student roles to learn through mutual negotiation (formative intervention by the principal). ◇Participants: A total of 23 teachers including 21 teachers and two managerial teachers at a targeted public elementary school ◇Description: The training was held twice, once in August 2018 and once in January 2019. In both trainings, each of the three novice teachers presented a trial lesson for 20 minutes that included a 5-minute question and answer time. Subsequently all participants exchange views for approximately 30 minutes. The training takes approximately an hour and a half. How to Analyze The training observation records and reviews of the participants after the training were analyzed. Analysis of the reviews was conducted using the concept name extraction method of the Analytical Worksheet (Sakai 2003) shown in the Modified Grounded Theory Approach (Kinoshita 2006: 200-201) based on the Grounded Theory Approach (Glaser and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1998). In addition, based on my analysis of the observation record, I examined whether or not novice teachers and participants achieved emergent learning (expansive learning) in which they mutually learn and improve while proactively seeking the direction of problem solution. After the first training, the novice teachers reviewed their trial lessons and discussed ideas for improvement for the second training for an hour and 40 minutes, which was included in the scope of verification.
In this study, two novice teacher trainings were conducted to study expansive learning where mainly novice teachers among the training participants proactively discussed problem solution and mutually learn and improve based on the novice teacher training designed by the principal (formative intervention). After each training, the quality of learning was examined based on the records of reviews from the novice and senior teachers. Both novice and senior teachers valued the new novice teacher training, saying “I learned different ways of questioning and dealing with students” and “I learned various teaching methods.” We concluded, therefore, that the trainings provided an opportunity for expansive learning to experience emergent learning and mutual improvement. We found that the novice and senior teachers were able to bring out their self-directed acts and change their awareness for achieving further development using the novice teacher training as a tool from their own perspectives. ◇Self-directed Acts of Novice Teachers The three novice teachers acted in a self-directed manner by seeking how to relax the teacher's tension and how to learn more. Specifically, (1) the three novice teachers discussed their trial lesson plans beforehand (receiving support and evaluation from the other novice teachers for reassurance); (2) novice teachers regarded the trial lessons from the other novices as their own lesson for learning. ◇Change in Awareness of Senior Teachers The awareness of the senior teachers changed through their participation in the novice teacher trainings as role-playing students. The senior teachers realized that the trainings provided a good opportunity to review their own teaching method. The trainings increased their awareness as leaders who regularly support novice teachers and acknowledge and feel pleased to observe novice teacher development. We concluded that these results were achieved through Engestrӧm's advocacy of the intervention creating proactiveness.
Asada, T. (2007) Student Teaching in Kindergarten: Functions of Mentoring (Annual Report of Educational Psychology in Japan published by The Japanese Association of Educational Psychology) 46,156-165． Ehrich, L. C., B. Hansford, and L. Tennet. (2004) Formal Mentoring Programs in Education and Other Professions: A Review of the Literature. Educational Administration Quarterly 40, 518–40. Engestrӧm,Y.(1991b) Developmental work research: A paradigm in practice. The Quarterly Newsletter of the Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, 13, 79-80. Engeström, Y. (Translated by Yamazumi, K., Matsushita, K., Yurikusa, T., Hosaka, Y., Shoi, Y., Tedori, Y., and Takahashi, N.) (2007) Learning by Expanding: An activity-theoretical approach to developmental research. Shin-yo-sha. Engestrӧm, Y., Sannino, A. (2010) Studies of expansive learning: Foundations, findings and future challenges. Educational Research Review 5, 1-24. Ikuta, T. (2009) Development of Teacher Training System based on Mentoring and e-learning [Report of Research Results obtained under the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research]. Goto, I.(2011) Collaborative Learning Design for Developing Novice Elementary School Teacher Competency: The Role of Management Personnel under the Theory of Expansive Learning [Annual Bulletin of The Japanese Society for the Study on Teacher Education] 20, 111-120. Goto, I. (2013) Problems in the Developing System (Mentoring System) for Novice Elementary School Teachers [New Training Theory to Support the Growth and Development of Novice Elementary School Teachers] Gakujutsu Shuppankai, 101-114. Kinoshita, Y. (2006) Practice of Grounded Theory Approach: An invitation to qualitative research. Koubundou. Lewin, K. (1948) Resolving Social Conflicts: Selected Papers on Group Dynamics. Harper & Row. Minoura, Y. (2009) Fieldwork Techniques and Practice II: Analysis and Interpretation. Minerva Shobo. Nakahara, J., Kanai, T. (2009) Reflective Manager: Top notch people always reflect on themselves. Kobunsha. Pogodzinski, Ben. (2015) Administrative Context and Novice Teacher-Mentor Interactions. Journal of Educational Administration 53, 40–65. Teaching Ability Improvement Division of the Training Department of the Tokyo Metropolitan School Personnel in Service Training Center (2008) Guidelines for novice teacher training, newly-appointed teacher training and fixed term (temporary) teacher training. Tokita, E. (2010) Developing Competencies of Beginner Teachers under the Guidance of their Mentors: Focusing on the acceptance of the competency development of beginner teachers and the basic principle of guidance [Annual Bulletin No. 19 of The Japanese Society for the Study on Teacher Education] 90-100. Tomihisa, K. (2008) Research on the Leadership-related Advisory Function of the School Principal in Support of Developing Competencies of Teachers. Kazamashobo. Watanabe, M., Hirata, F. (2008) Introduction to Mentoring. Nikkei Inc.
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