06 SES 12 JS, Agency and Learning in Networks and Families
Joint Paper Session NW 06 and NW 14
Media use of secondary school pupils in domestic learning contexts (Rummler et al. 2018; Rummler 2018) is the focus of the project «Homework and Media Education». The study is funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF; No.: 175909). Two pre-studies have been conducted in the academic years of 2016/17 and 2017/18 in selected primary and secondary school classes. The first part of the main survey followed in autumn 2018 in various German-speaking Swiss cantons, among them Bern, Zürich and St. Gallen. A total of n=250 pupils returned media diaries which are currently subject to analysis. The guiding research questions are:
- Which media-related activities are pupils performing while engaged in domestic learning, including routines and practices that are embedded and/or emerge from these?
- How do pupils perform agency within their daily media-practice considering social, cultural and technical structures?
Stimulating self-reflection processes on media practice is considered the main objective of the study. We argue that media are substantial for individual and societal creations of and changes in individual and collective constructions of world- and self-relations. Emergence of these relations is reflected in individual articulation understood as formal and material use of media. Articulation can be perceived as acting with, through and towards media. Hence appropriation as conceptualisation of articulation is crucial for (media) education (Meder 2011, 71ff). These processes are documented in the media diary notes which therefore may be considered as a documentation of self-reflection in terms of (Media-)Bildung (Meder 2015). This concept is based on an understanding of Bildung as both the process and status as well as the result of the threefold reflexive relation of the individual towards
- the material/factual world and its representation,
- the other/s and society and its communication,
- her*self/him*self throughout the life-course across articulation and interaction. (Meder 2007, 65)
Despite the focus on the individual and his*her personal development, we take a wider view on the development of reflexive agency through everyday media practice (Seipold, Rummler, and Rasche 2010) embedded in media ecologies. Those ecologies are based on the assumption of a triangular relation of social and technological structures, agency and cultural practices (Pachler, Bachmair, and Cook 2010), within the embeddedness of everyday action in the ecology of physical and structural worlds (Rummler 2014). Therefore, to study the media practice of pupils within their everyday homework routines, it is necessary to consider all the resources as well as cultural and social/technological structures, these actions are related to, dependent on and an alternative to.
The role of media in these activities are essential as resources for, as well as products of individual (media-)action. It is thus the active process of appropriation and the inherent agency which constitutes this reflexive relationship between one’s own lifeworld and everyday-life (Wolf, Rummler, and Duwe 2011, 143). As a consequence, context is used to describe the interdependence of action, construction and the settings, backgrounds, situations and environments they are taking place in (Aßmann 2013). The active construction of context (Seipold 2017) for instance can be understood as productive agency, appropriating technological, social, cultural and knowledge resources embedded in cultural practice within the range of structural opportunities.
We are aiming to develop an understanding of learning practice bearing on student-centred and enabling Media Education.
Due to its Mixed Methods design, the current survey consists of three different parts: * A questionnaire containing one open-ended and seven closed-ended questions separated in three parts. The first part collects basic demographic data, and asks pupils to name an ego-network of five colleagues to form a fictional learning group e.g. on WhatsApp plus their work motifs. The second part covers homework support and supervision by parents and other persons in the social surroundings of the pupils. The third part addresses support through media use during homework and which impact protagonists in their daily life had on pupils’ media use. * The main part of the survey is the media diary, guided by an open-ended question about media use in the context of homework covering time periods, locations, social relations and naming of used devices and services. * Three open self-reflection questions on homework during the journal-period close the diary. Pupils filled out the media diaries/journals in form of paper-based pocket-format (A5) booklets for a period of two school-weeks, including two weekends. Included was information on the task and guiding questions for the pupils as well as detailed information for parents and teachers on the last page. All participants handed in signed declarations of consent by their parents, also enclosed in the information pages for parents. Every single day of the journal period is represented by a pre-structured double-page, inviting pupils to report their media activity during the day, as we assumed that homework activities did not take place in a single time-frame during the day, but was integrated in individual social, spatial and temporal structures. The survey started with a personal visit in the school classes by a member of the research-team, introducing the study, giving detailed information about how to fill out the journal and answering questions by the pupils. The questionnaire-part of the survey was filled out in the presence of the research team member to ensure completion and validity. The analysis follows a grounded research approach. The diaries/journals are being transcribed and coded, using computer-assisted content analysis for theoretical sampling, followed by a coding-process guided by hypothesis-generating approaches (Corbin and Strauss 2015). New study questions are developed in the course of the analysis and will be pursued further in a second field phase in 2019. Consequently, current study results must be considered preliminary.
Characteristic examples for special utterances, dictions and expressions will demonstrate which forms of articulation pupils use in appropriation of distinct media products and services into their everyday-life practice. For example, we observe changes in the meaning as well as the inherent practice of "watching TV". Traditional watching interweaves with other uses and modes such as browsing funny videos on YouTube or choosing TV shows on-demand. How pupils address their own practice and what means they apply to completing school related tasks are two aspects of media ecology as described above. Media artefacts, apps and their importance for, and effective use during homework and other domestic learning practices will be another question addressed in the presentation. Their availability changes the disposition towards how pupils may achieve the result "homework completed". Through appropriating resources and opportunities of media, connectedness and communication, pupils’ agency and processes of Medienbildung become apparent. Presented examples shall illustrate how pupils find ways of problem-solving and collaboration making technology work for them within its possibilities. We are beginning to elaborate a theory that "homework" as practice of school-related domestic learning is highly related to technological, social, communicative and cultural dynamics. Therefore, it is already possible to give first advices for teachers with inherent consequences for teaching practice and Media Education. The recommendations address homework tasks and pupils’ competencies to organise their own workflows.
Aßmann, Sandra. 2013. Medienhandeln zwischen formalen und informellen Kontexten: Doing Connectivity. Medienbildung und Gesellschaft. Springer VS, Wiesbaden. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-01940-2_2. Corbin, Juliet M., and Strauss. 2015. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. 4th [rev.] ed. Los Angeles, Calif: Sage Publications. Meder, Norbert. 2007. ‘Theorie der Medienbildung. Selbstverständnis und Standortbestimmung der Medienpädagogik’. In Jahrbuch Medienpädagogik 6. Medienpädagogik - Standortbestimmung einer erziehungswissenschaftlichen Disziplin, edited by Werner Sesink, Michael Kerres, and Heinz Moser, 6:55–73. Jahrbuch Medienpädagogik. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-531-90544-0_3. Meder, Norbert. 2011. ‘Von der Theorie der Medienpädagogik zu einer Theorie der Medienbildung’. In Medialität und Realität. Zur konstitutiven Kraft der Medien, edited by Johannes Fromme, Stefan Iske, and Winfried Marotzki, 67–81. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-531-92896-8_5. Meder, Norbert. 2015. ‘Neue Technologien Und Erziehung/Bildung’. Medienimpulse. Beiträge Zur Medienpädagogik 1 (Medienpädagogik und E-Learning): 12. https://www.medienimpulse.at/articles/view/788. Pachler, Norbert, Ben Bachmair, and John Cook. 2010. Mobile Learning. Structures, Agency, Practices. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0585-7. Rummler, Klaus. 2014. ‘Foundations of Socio-Cultural Ecology: Consequences for Media Education and Mobile Learning in Schools’. Edited by Dorothee M. Meister, Theo Hug, and Norm Friesen. MedienPädagogik: Zeitschrift Für Theorie Und Praxis Der Medienbildung, no. 24 Pedagogical Media Ecologies (July): 1–17. https://doi.org/10.21240/mpaed/24/2014.07.10.X. Rummler, Klaus. 2018. ‘Hausaufgaben und Medienbildung. Eine explorative Studie zur Ökologie des Medienhandelns im häuslichen Lernkontext von Sekundarschülerinnen und -schülern in der Deutschschweiz’. Edited by Jasmin Bastian, Tobias Feldhoff, Marius Harring, and Klaus Rummler. MedienPädagogik: Zeitschrift für Theorie und Praxis der Medienbildung 31 (‹Digitale Bildung›. Medienbezogene Bildungskonzepte für die ‹nächste Gesellschaft›): 143–65. https://doi.org/10.21240/mpaed/31/2018.05.22.X. Rummler, Klaus, Donjeta Asllani, Matthias Bänninger, Stefan Braunschweiler, Sabrina Brückner, Evelyn Eigenmann, Michaela Hofstetter, et al. 2018. Hausaufgaben Und Medien. Lern- Und Medienbildungsprozesse Am Übergang Zwischen Formellen Und Informellen Kontexten. Edited by Klaus Rummler. Zürich: Pädagogische Hochschule Zürich. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1169629. Seipold, Judith. 2017. ‘Lernergenerierte Contexte. Räume Für Personalisiertes Und Selbstgesteuertes Lernen Und Ideengeber Für Ein „Ökologiemodell von Aneignung“’. In Jahrbuch Medienpädagogik 13: Vernetzt Und Entgrenzt – Gestaltung von Lernumgebungen Mit Digitalen Medien, edited by Kerstin Mayrberger, Johannes Fromme, Petra Grell, and Theo Hug, 29–43. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-16432-4_3. Seipold, Judith, Klaus Rummler, and Julia Rasche. 2010. ‘Medienbildung Im Spannungsfeld Alltäglicher Handlungsmuster Und Unterrichtsstrukturen’. In Medienbildung in Neuen Kulturräumen: Die Deutschprachige Und Britische Diskussion, edited by Ben Bachmair, 227–41. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-531-92133-4_16. Wolf, Karsten D., Klaus Rummler, and Wibke Duwe. 2011. ‘Medienbildung als Prozess der Unsgestaltung zwischen formaler Medienerziehung und informeller Medienaneignung’. MedienPädagogik: Zeitschrift für Theorie und Praxis der Medienbildung 20 (0): 137–58. https://doi.org/10.21240/mpaed/20/2011.09.17.X.
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