29 SES 13, Displacements in arts education research
To problematize the teaching of arts in the initial years of schooling in Brazil, we observed that the playfulness and manifestations of popular culture, still the legal frame and curricular guidelines and their compulsion, valorization and promotion, have been disregarded as a fundamental element of the artistic universe in school. We are interested in an education with another episteme of body and culture, in an integration between feeling, thinking and acting. In this communication we emphasize the importance of the child initiation in the arts following a continuum flow, starting in the family experiences such as lullabies and popular festivities to expressions and regional manifestations, curricular component of basic education. When reviewing and analyzing our teaching practice in arts education in the training of pedagogues at the State University of Ceará - UECE and the University of International Integration of Afro-Brazilian Lusophony - UNILAB, between 2013 and 2017, based on action research, participant observation and analysis of documents (projects, course plans, research and extension reports and iconographic collections), we reaffirm art as a portal and as a bridge to the learning and integral development of children, mediated by the body and education in the experience of popular culture and the culture of the other.
In the current context, the media content is more accessible to the child than the community and artistic manifestations of their city. In brazilian northeast, we realize how far the school is away from the cultural manifestations of the city (COLARES, 2017), when we come to Ceará, and don’t see the June festivities and carnival, for example, in the curriculum and school calendar. The cultural heritage, material and inmaterial of Ceará is far from being approuch by the school, with few exceptions such as the publishing initiatives "Construindo o Ceará - História" (SOUSA, PONTE, 2016) and "Fortaleza a Criança e a Cidade" (CAVALVANTE et al. , 2016) and teacher training. We refer to the element of local culture in child’s art education in the initial schooling, markedly by pointing out a position in favor of the laughter culture, the pleasant conviviality, the body in movement and the joy of popular knowledge. For this reason, we agree with Plato (2000), telling that gymnastics and music are the best way to educate body and soul, respectively, or with Thomas Aquino (apud Lauand, 1991), in defending good humor in education, as well as with Piaget (1971, 1974) when affirming that acting on the world the child learns. These assertions are conform to Brazilian educator, Paulo Freire (SOUZA, 2001), because for him the "important thing in school is not just to study, it is not just to work. It is also to create bonds of friendship. It is to create camaraderie. It is to live, is to 'tie in' it! [...]. Make friends, educate yourself, be happy "(Griffith of the author).
Art is present in the children education since birth, because in lullabies, packed in the hammock, be the begins of the sensibility education, for art, body, culture, permeated by oral tradition and science integrated to life. To value, promote and preserve this school course to follow the intercultural education way and learning. It is to boost the child's trajectory, in the discovery of a community life rich in meaning, which begins in the family, extends in the surroundings and in the city, where school is a part. In this perspective, it is the school's responsibility to recognize and promote local culture, family and ancestor’s culture of students and those living in the surrounding, as well the "universal" culture, stimulating and relating in a collaborative and empowering way.
We are concerned to foster in teacher formation another episteme of body, of the arts and culture, in an integration between actions and reflections, between feeling, thinking and doing/living. In this sense, the phenomenon addressed is the education of the child's sensitivity. The question is how to approach this initiation of the child in the arts, body language and the diverse cultures within the school? The curriculum of compulsory education of arts in Brazilian basic education addresses different languages such as visual arts, dance, music and theater and can intersect with the contributions of different cultures and ethnicities, constitutive of the people identity, especially the indigenous and African ( BRASIL / LDB, 1996, Article 26, paragraph 2, paragraph 4). From the pedagogical practices in the teaching of arts in teaching, research and extension activities, we have visited literature about the body (ZOBOLI, ALMEIDA, BORDAS, 2014, COLARES, 2017), intercultural education (CANDAU, 2012, WALSH, 2010, FREIRE, 2000 ) and arts teaching (BOURDIEU, 2003, ECO, 2016, READ, 1983) and weave pedagogical principles that substantiate our teaching practice. Adopting action research as a methodology, we doined participant observation in the interstice between 2013 and 2017, analyzed documents, to mention, research and extension projects, course plans, reports, research and extension reports, as well as iconographic collection, systematized the activities and select one for further study. It is important to highlight that many of them have been cross-sectional, promoting the inseparability between teaching, research and extension. The choice of the action-research method is justified in the possibility of reflecting around our teaching practice, because it is a strategy for the development of teachers and researchers so that we use our praxis as an object of study and intervention (TRIPP, 2005). As artifice, we problematize the teaching of art in education, in a perspective of liberating intercultural education, with a view to reinforcement the practice of teaching in art, articulated to popular knowledge and to the universe of dance. The research is carried out by two professors from public universities in Ceará, who face the fragility of the experience in the field of Arts, whether in the basic schooling of Pedagogy students, future teachers of early childhood education and elementary education, or in the daily life of the schools for which they prepare to teach. Parallel paths, intersecting developing reflections on art in Pedagogy, in academic meetings, observations and practices in basic schools, communities and universities.
We pay special attention to the body's place in the school and we highlight the popular culture in the arts education and the child education. We also reinforce the ludic place in the play body, characteristic of popular manifestations, because joy facilitates and favors learning as opposed to the educational culture, nowadays, so focused on school evaluation, that accentuates fear and so often blocks learning. The curricular matrix of the Pedagogy course presents significant differences in the teaching of the arts, in the body's education and the education of the senses as an educational principle. While the UECE has only one curricular component in the area of arts, UNILAB has presented itself as a paradigmatic break because it has several components that have as object of study the body, dance, samba, capoeira, African art etc. At Unilab, the students emphasized the importance of rhythm for the healthy development and the child education, as well as pedagogical environments that emphasize the presence and interaction with the four elements of nature and with the joke and, in particular, the free play and the culture popular, Afro-Brazilian and indigenous. The intercultural education practice had been experienced in both universities and promoted access to culture, in which the body integrates itself into a recognition of its language. The child's education was reflected and fostered in a perspective of continuous flow between family-community and school. We also highlight the potential of the students, who in creating environments and spaces of experience and sharing between local cultures and the other, emerge in an infinity of creative possibilities. We reaffirm art as a portal and a bridge to the learning and integral development of children mediated by the body and the education of the senses in the experience of popular culture and the culture of the other.
BOURDIEU, Pierre. O Amor pela Arte: os museus de arte na Europa e seu público. São Paulo. Editora da Universidade de São Paulo: Zouk, 2003.
BRASIL. Lei de Diretrizes e Base da Educação Nacional. Lei n. 9.394, 20 de dezembro de 1996.
BRASIL. Lei N° 12.289/ 2010. Dispõe sobre a criação da Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira - UNILAB e dá outras providencias.
BRASIL/UNILAB. Projeto Político Pedagógico de curso de Licenciatura em Pedagogia. Redenção, Ceará, 2017. Disponível em:
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