04 SES 06 F, Migration And Diversity: Between Students' Integration And Acculturation
The phenomenon of migration that typifies a globalized world has created a society characterized by cultural and religious diversity (Álvarez, González and Fernández, 2012; Del Espino-Díaz, 2017). This has led to different types of conflict (Portera and Grant, 2017; Porto, 2018). States cannot disregard the current situation, and so intercultural strategies that encourage interreligious dialogue aimed at building a culture of peace must be part of educational curricula.
The starting point for this study is the fact that the cultural and religious diversity in our society that is typical of a globalized world means that it is necessary to acquire a series of civic skills to help develop a culture of peace (Santos Rego, 2017). A culture of peace is understood as a culture in which individuals, groups, and nations have cooperative and productive relationships with each other and where the conflicts that inevitably arise are handled constructively (Alzate, 2013).
On the other hand, from the prism of inclusive education, the school must be based on solid values rooted in the community that is reflected in the actions of the same, values such as equity, participation, community, kindness, respect for diversity, honesty, tolerance, joy, sustainability and freedom (Smith and Paracka, 2018).
This type of values became precisely the object of study of the research that is reported in the paper, directed to predict their acquisition from different personal variables and a curricular one (choice of the subject of religion vs. the subject of civic education). Regression analysis included mediation and moderation. Additionally, a series of pedagogical guidelines was stipulated, although it is not a proposal consisting in an operational curricular concretion, but what is intended to show is a frame of reference that can be valid in the teaching field to develop classroom programming in the transversal context of training in youth values, and directed towards an inclusive education.
The methodology used focused on a descriptive, correlational and predictive study by means of a survey that takes into consideration a series of predictors such as personality factors that make up the Big Five model (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism and Openness to Experience); the constructs of empathy and self-esteem; the curricular option (religious education or civic education); sociodemographic variables such as gender and age; and three types of criterion variables: social values, self-regulation values, and achievement value. The sample was taken in Southern Europe, specifically in the region of Andalusia (Spain) on a population of 450 students aged between 12 and 16 years. Regarding the instruments implemented with each of the study variables, in relation to the sociodemographic variables of gender and age, two open response items were included. The same formula was carried out for the socio-educational variable called "curricular option". NEO-FFI was used to measure personality variables. In the case of empathy, the IRI instrument was used and the Rosenberg scale was used to measure self-esteem. Finally, to measure social values, self-regulation and achievement, the instrument called Socio-Personal Values Assessment Questionnaire was used.
In the analysis of mediation, three models were obtained (social values, values of self-regulation and value of achievements). In total, it was found that three variables exerted a mediating effect between the curricular option as an independent variable and social values, self-regulation and performance as dependents. Therefore, two personality variables (kindness and conscience) and social values exercise a mediational role. The moderation analysis yielded 24 variables that moderated the relationship of the curricular option with the values. This result could respond to religiosity, by associating positively, to the so-called prosocial values such as tradition, conformity and benevolence, while what is done in a negative sense with materialistic denominations such as hedonism, power and achievement; on the other hand, one of the reasons why religiosity is probably associated with prosocial behavior can respond from psychosocial positions. Thus, religion carries out a function of socialization influencing the beliefs, attitudes and behaviors of people. Finally, we present a series of pedagogical orientations derived from the results. Regarding the design of strategies based on the analysis of mediation, a proposal of competences was carried out, taking as reference the facets or dimensions of the personality traits and the description of the sociopersonal values that are included in the elaboration of the Questionnaire of Evaluation of Sociopersonal Values. In relation to the design of strategies based on moderation analysis, a pedagogical orientation was included for each of the 24 moderation effects found.
Álvarez, J.L., González, H. and Fernández. G. (2012). El conflicto cultural y religioso. Aproximación etiológica. In J. L. Álvarez and M. A. Essomba (Eds.), Dioses en las aulas. Educación y diálogo interreligioso, (p. 23-60). Barcelona: Graó). Alzate Saez, Ramón. 2013. “Desarrollo de la cultura de la paz y la convivencia en el ámbito municipal: La mediación comunitaria”. Política y Sociedad 50 (1): 179-195. Del Espino-Díaz, L. (2017). Sociedad, Cultura y Religión: Hacia una Educación Inclusiva en un contexto Intercultural. (Society, Culture and Religion: Towards an Inclusive Education in an Intercultural Contex). Córdoba: Diputación de Córdoba. Portera, A., & Grant, C. (Eds.). (2017). Intercultural education and competences: Challenges and answers for the global world. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Porto, M. (2018). Intercultural Citizenship Education in the Language Classroom. In The palgrave handbook of global citizenship and education (pp. 489-506). Palgrave Macmillan, London. Santos Rego, M. A. (2017). La educación intercultural y el pluralismo religioso: Propuestas pedagógicas para el diálogo. Educación XX1, 20(1), 17-35. Smith, S. H., & Paracka, D. J. (2018). Global learning is shared learning: Interdisciplinary intercultural competence at a comprehensive regional university. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 63, 17-26.
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