10 SES 02 C, Research on Professional Knowledge & Identity in Teacher Education
Introduction. According to K.Schwabe the present epoch is a human epoch, which for the first time testifies the significant role of human activity in the Earth’s all ecosystems formation. The recognition of a man’s leading role in the new world order formation means education responsibility increasing for the quality of the man’s preparation. Research appears as one of activities that provides such vital things for the development of countries as “ideas generation”, “innovative ideas development” and “their circulation in various contexts” [5, p. 74].
The coming industrial revolution gives a special meaning to the teacher's professional research activity, which is recognized by scientists in many countries. According to Zagvyazinsky V.I. , Litsman G.N. , Potashnik M.M , Ioannidou-Koutselinia M. and Patsalidoua F. , Larike H. Bronkhorst, Paulien C. Meijer, Bob Koster, Sanne F. Akkerman, Jan D. Vermunt , Sardar M. Anwaruddin and Nasrin Pervin , Bradley-Levine J., Smith J., Carr K.  etc. the teacher’s research activities have a deep influence on the teacher’s intellect development, changes attitude to professional activity and behavior in this process, and positively affects professional growth. Such areas of the teacher’s professional research activity, as an analytical understanding of the educational process and its results; professional activity’s individual concept development; participation in the design of the concept and development program of the school; student research in the educational process; equipment of schoolchildren with research techniques cover the entire field of the teacher activity at school.
Despite the obvious research advantages and its developing potential many teachers, not only in Russia, but also in other countries [12, p.8], are not ready to implement professional research activities.
Represented data indicate a contradiction between the teacher’s professional research activity relevance, teachers’ growing interest to this type of activity and their unreadiness to its implementation. The aim of our research is to identify the main problems that prevent future bachelor teachers’ high-quality training for professional research activities.
In contrast to the previous standard there is no such activity as research in the new Federal State Education Standards 3 ++ that cover bachelor’s degree program on such training programs as Pedagogical education . Research work is included in such types of practice as educational and practical, which provide bachelors with the primary research skills [4, p. 5-6]. This means that research competencies, depending on the head of the educational organization competence, can or cannot be included in its curriculum that appears as one of the most important problems in the training of future teachers-researchers.
The problem of teachers’ professionalism engaged in the bachelors’ preparation for professional research activities is of no less importance. The fact of defending a thesis does not provide the necessary level of a teacher’s competence who prepares a future teacher-researcher.
The teacher should form at bachelors not only primary skills of professional research work, but also motivation to it. The empirical data obtained during the survey of students makes it evident that its formation is another serious problem. Only 10.16% of respondents are interested in the teacher's professional research activities.
There are young “amateurs”, “consumers of students' intellectual resources” and “spiritual mentors” among the university professors managing the students’ scientific activities. The system of selection and teachers-spiritual mentors’ stimulation as an important improving quality of future teacher-researchers’ training condition is close to nonexistent
Another problem is the organization of the higher and secondary general education schools’ network interaction aimed at the future teacher’s professional research activities preparing. A teacher who is not prepared for this type of activity cannot effectively participate in this process. Nevertheless, it is necessary to organize interaction.
Research methods. The theoretical base of the research are the results of the study and analysis of the foreign and native scientists’ works devoted to the problems faced by teachers engaged in professional research activities. The research uses such qualitative scientific and pedagogical methods as theoretical analysis, synthesis, abductive reasoning (inference), consisting in explaining the facts, allowing the research problem deeper understanding and identifying the reasons for its existence, conducting a search for inductive assumptions that explain the facts. The empirical base of the research was provided by such a quantitative method as a closed survey, the sample size of which amounted to 424 teachers of secondary (both rural and urban) schools of Tatarstan. Simultaneously with them 458 students of IV-V courses, who study “Pedagogical education” at four Russian higher educational institutions were taking part in the similar survey. Numerous conversations with teachers and undergraduate students, a retrospective analysis of personal work experience as a research supervisor of the professional research activity of teachers were held. The results of the questionnaire survey indicate that 71.93% of teachers are convinced that the teacher is obliged to be engaged in professional research activities, but only 65.09% show interest in it. 23.82% of respondents do not see any sense in it; 12.97% of teachers simply dislike this type of professional activity and do not want to be engaged in it; 5.19% - did not hear that teachers are engaged in research activities; 2.36% of teachers do not want to waste their free time for research activities; 0.47% of respondents believe that research is the prerogative of scientists, but not practical teachers According to the research results, among the motives motivating teachers to professional research activities, the desire to increase their competitiveness takes the 1st place; the 2nd - the school administration requirements; the 3d - internal motives; the 4th - financial interest and career growth. The educational process quality improving and the student personality development are not among teacher’s priority motives Among the things preventing teachers to do research activities are: the lack of specialized knowledge; a large academic load; inertness of thinking; insufficient professional level; lack of incentives; laziness; lack of moral support from colleagues and a teacher’s lack of understanding of the research role in improving the quality of education; lack of confidence in their abilities; lack of interest in this type of activity; dependence on the opinions of others, etc.
Conclusion. It is necessary for all level education system leaders to realize the essence of the teacher's professional research activities. The main problem in the future teachers’ professional research training system is the attitude of both teachers and the state represented by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The efforts of scientists in this field of activity will not be effective if the educational system heads don’t understand the teacher professional research activity importance and include it in the sphere of educational policy. There isn’t consensus on this work’s content despite numerous discussions and publications devoted to the problems of organizing the practitioner teachers’ professional research activities and preparing future teachers for such kind of work. A system of extracurricular work with students should be developed in order to form effective motivation for future teachers’ professional research activities at university. Its goal is to popularize the results and teachers’ professional research activity process, the research-teachers themselves, as well as the achievements of the most successful research-students. Higher education teachers don’t undergo special training for developing future teachers' readiness for professional research activities. The lack of special training, as well as the criteria for the selection of higher educational institutions teachers for the future teachers’ readiness formation for professional research activities, is a problem to be solved. It gives a formal character if low-skilled teachers are admitted to this responsible case. The use of secondary schools only as a base of teaching and research practice for future research-teachers does not allow talking about the network interaction of the school and the university. Networking involves a positive interaction, empowering the university to prepare future teachers for professional research activities, and schools to increase the effectiveness of the educational process. Currently, it is a poorly used resource in the future teacher-researcher training.
References. 1. Zagvyazinsky V.I, Atakhanov R. (2010). Methodology and methods of psychological and pedagogical research: book for higher institution students. 6th ed., Moscow: Publishing Center "Academy". 2. Litsman G.N. (2000). Research activity as a means of teacher's professional qualification growth: dis. ... cand. ped. sciences, Ekaterinburg. 3. Potashnik M.M (2009). Management of professional growth of teachers in the modern school. Toolkit. Moscow: Center for Teacher Education. 4. Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation № 125, February 22, 2018 “On the approval of the federal state educational standard of higher education - bachelor degree 44.03.05 Pedagogical education (with two training profiles). 5. Shvabe K. (2016). Fourth Industrial Revolution. Moscow: Eksmo, p.138. 6. Bradley-Levine J., Smith J., Carr K. (2009). The Role of Action Research in Empowering Teachers to Change their Practice. Journal of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research 2009, Vol. 3, pp. 152-161. 7. Ekiz D. (2006). Primary School Teachers’ Attitudes towards Educational Research. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice 6 (2) May 2006, pp. 395-402. 8. Ilhan N., Yilmaz Z.A., Dede H. (2015). Attitudes of Pre-service Science Teachers Towards Educational Research and Their Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs in Turkey. Journal of Baltic Science Education, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2015, pp. 183-193. 9. Ioannidou-Koutselinia M., Patsalidoua F. (2014). Engaging school teachers and school principals in an action research inservice development as a means of pedagogical self-awareness. Educational Action Research, 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09650792.2014.960531 10. Larike H. Bronkhorst, Paulien C. Meijer, Bob Koster, Sanne F. Akkerman, Jan D. Vermunt (2013). Consequential research designs in research on teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education 33 (2013) 90-99. 11. Sardar M. Anwaruddin & Nasrin Pervin (2015). English-language teachers’ engagement with research: findings from Bangladesh. Professional Development in Education, 41:1, pp. 21-39. 12. Symington D., Russell Tytler R. (2011). Schools and teachers supporting student open investigations. Teaching science Vol. 57, No. 1, March 2011, pp. 8-11. 13. Zhou J. (2012). Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions. Chinese Education and Society, vol. 45, no. 4, July–August 2012, pp. 68–80. 14. Vanderlinde R., van Braak J. (2010). The gap between educational research and practice: views of teachers, school leaders, intermediaries and researchers. British Educational Research Journal Vol. 36, No. 2, April 2010, pp. 299–316. 15. West C. (2011). Primary School Teachers’ Attitudes towards Educational Research. Arts Education Policy Review, 112: 89–94, 2011.
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