22 SES 07 C, Learning and Assessment
Peer-assessment (PA) embrace a wide variety of conceptions and typologies from the mode in which students review and provide feedback to each other on their progress on a in individual task, or collaborative assignment where students could also be involved in marking each other contribution to a teamwork assignment (Adachi et al, 2018).
The diversity of approaches defining peer-assessment has been illustrated by Toppings’ (1998) typology of peer-assessment and lately developed by the seminal work of Gielen, Dochy, and Onghena (2011) who reviewed the literature from 1997 to 2006, to develop an ‘Inventory of Peer Assessment Diversity’, which was compiled from published peer assessment models.
Following different definitions of peer-assessment (Boud & Tyree, 1980; Dochy, Segers, & Sluijsmans, 1999, Adachi et al, 2018 among others) in this communication we will understand the term as the activity in which students are involved in revising and grading their peers according to appropriate criteria to judge the quality of a collaborative work assignment.
Peer-assessment occupies a central place among the strategies directed to improve students learning, being associated to the assessment for learning approach (Reinholz 2015). PA affects students learning in a positive way and there are several studies acknowledging them. Thus, PA in the classroom benefits learning and performance, problem solving skills, metacognition and self- regulated learning (Hwang et al. 2014; Kim and Ryu 2013; Panadero et al. 2016).
However, to promote all these benefits, PA requires no just guidance, buy also it needs to be designed, structured and planned (Panadero and Alonso-Tapia, 2013). In addition, students must possess a level of assessment literacy in order to carry out PA tasks (Winstone et al, 2017). Following Winstone, et al. (2017:1) being “literate in assessment is defined here as the processes of understanding the grading process and of applying this understanding to make academic judgments of one’s work and performance. Assessment literacy should support proactive recipience by enabling the learner to understand the relation between assessment and learning, and what is expected from him or her and to appraise one’s own and others’ work against implicit or explicit grading criteria”.
The aim of this paper is to explore how PA contributes to develop students’ assessment literacy in a sample of students involved in Education bachelor’s degree. The setting of the experience is a PA experience in which students are involved in assessing and grading their colleagues’ contribution in a group work assignment.
Context settings During the academic term, 177 second year students in Teacher Education and Social Education f bachelor’s degree have been involved in a collaborative work assignment. At the end of the experience, each member of the group must assess each one of their group colleagues. In order to do that, a rubric assessing the contribution and the implication of each member in the collaborative work process has been developed. At the end of the experience, students answered a survey through which their perception about the perceived impact of PA in their assessment skills was analysed. Survey structure The survey is structured in 15 items related to the assessment task and interpersonal and intrapersonal skills. Some of them are: - The PA made me more aware about the assessment criteria - The PA made me interiorize the assessment criteria - The PA helped me to develop my assessment skills - PA helped me to learn about different assessment methods and instruments - Being involved in PA made the assessment process fairer. - Being involved in PA made me feel that my judgements counts - PA contributed to improve my relationships with my colleagues - PA made me more aware about my weaknesses and my strengths - Stress level associated to PA In addition, 22 items related to the configuration of the PA process carried out. Some of these are: - The PA has been carried out individually for each member or shared - Previous experience with PA - Place in which PA has been carried out (during the class or out of the class) - Guidance and support provided by lecturer during the process - Grade The items are 7 points Likert Scale and multiple-choice options. Data analysis Statistical analyses were performed to compare the mean score of different outcomes across independent variables. For instance the mean of PA was compared by means of the paired sample T test.
The findings show that students perceive being involved in PA contributed to achieved and practice their assessment skills. Concretely they acknowledge that PA helped them to understand (m=5.28) and interiorize the assessment criteria (m=4.96), made them more aware about the importance of the assessment process (m=4.42) and contributed to develop their assessment skills (m=5.14). In addition, PA made them learn about different assessment methods (m=4.75) and gave them the feeling of fairness (m=4.97). If we compare the different dimensions of assessment competency with the independent variables, in general, the differences are minimum. For instance, there are not significant differences in the student assessment literacy and the way in which the assessment criteria have been established (established by the lecturer or by students). However, if the PA is performed individually for each member or the group the perception of fairness is higher comparing with the case in which the PA is performed shared with the rest (p<0.032). The moment in which students receive guidance on the assessment criteria used to be used in their PA (before starting and before and during the process) make no significant difference on their assessment literacy. However, previous experience on PA significantly affect on the perception of justice (p<0.09) and on learning of different assessment strategies (p<0.046). Inquiring about the level of stress students associated to the PA, most of the two third consider it as a low and very stressful activity. However, those considering PA as a high stress activity, registered significantly higher the dimension liked to the criteria understanding and uptake (p<0.048). In view of its importance and complexity, developing students’ assessment literacy requires further attention and discussion, so the communication we resent will provide the framework to engage audience in such reflexion.
Adachi, C. Tai, J. & Dawson, P. (2018) A framework for designing, implementing, communicating and researching peer assessment, Higher Education Research & Development, 37:3, 453-467, DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2017.1405913 Boud, D., & Tyree, A. (1980). Self and peer assessment in professional education: A preliminary study in law. Journal of the Society of Public Teachers of Law, New Series, 15, 65–74. Dochy, F., Segers, M., & Sluijsmans, D. (1999). The use of self-, peer and co-assessment in higher education: A review. Studies in Higher Education, 24(3), 331–350. Gielen, S., Dochy, F., & Onghena, P. (2011). An inventory of peer assessment diversity. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 36(2), 137–155. Hwang, G. J., Hung, C. M., & Chen, N. S. (2014). Improving learning achievements, motivations and problem-solving skills through a peer assessment-based game development approach. Educational Technology Research and Development, 62(2), 129–145. doi:10.1007/s11423-013-9320-7. Kim, M., & Ryu, J. (2013). The development and implementation of a Web-based formative peer assessment system for enhancing students’ metacognitive awareness and performance in illstructured tasks. Educational Technology Research and Development, 61(4), 549–561. doi:10.1007/s11423-012-9266-1. Panadero, E., & Alonso-Tapia, J. (2013). Self-assessment: theoretical and practical connotations. When it happens, how is it acquired and what to do to develop it in our students. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 11(2), 551–576. https://doi.org/10.14204/ejrep.30.12200. Panadero, E., Jonsson, A., & Strijbos, J. W. (2016). Scaffolding self-regulated learning through self-assessment and peer assessment: Guidelines for classroom implementation. In D. Laveault & L. Allal (Eds.), Assessment for learning: meeting the challenge of implementation. Springer. Reinholz, D. L. (2015). The assessment cycle: A model for learning through peer assessment. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 1–15. doi: 10.1080/02602938.2015.1008982 Topping, K. (1998). Peer assessment between students in colleges and universities. Review of Educational Research, 68(3), 249–276. Winstone N., Nash, R., Parker, M. & Rowntree, J. (2017) Supporting Learners' Agentic Engagement With Feedback: A Systematic Review and a Taxonomy of Recipience Processes, Educational Psychologist, 52:1, 17-37
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