20 SES 06 JS, From Multilingual Education to Multicultural Classrooms: Approaches and practices Part 1
Joint Paper/Ignite Talk Session NW 20 and NW 31 to be continued in 20 SES 07 JS
A great number of people are multilingual and use more than two languages in their everyday life. The languages they use have different statuses as majority/minority languages both in their community and internationally and some of the languages are used primarily in the private domain while others are used primarily in public domains, such as work or school . Multilingualism is not exceptional but more frequent than might be commonly thought. In fact,it is, rather, a normal and unremarkable necessity for the majority in the world today' .There is a growing need for individual multilingualism as a result of increasing communications among different parts of the world and the need to be competent in languages of wider communication . Whereas learning second and additional languages in school has traditionally been associated with the social elite and the hallmark of a well-educated person's background, the increasing recognition and use of world languages as well as minority languages is making multilingualism a desired educational aim for many individuals in many communities around the world . In multilingual education more than one language is used as the medium of instruction, but multilingual education can present additional challenges because it is more ambitious . By multilingual education, we mean educational programmes that use languages other than the first languages as media of instruction and they aim for communicative proficiency in more than two languages. Accomplishing this calls for complex educational planning to accommodate multiple linguistic aims, curricular materials, and teaching strategies within the framework of limited school schedules . With the above in mind, the purpose of this paper is to explore the realities of multilingual education in constantly changing and volatile linguistic environments within an international perspective but with a focus on the varied rich linguistic context of the Republic of Tatarstan. The aim of this research is reviewing the linguistic policiy of Russia to incorporate multilingual education in Tatarstan through the implementation of effective programmes.Nowadays situation allows establishing the fact of steady entry of Russia into the European educational space and respecting the general norms of European multilingual education. Multilingual education creates equal opportunities for all ethnic groups and attaches youth to cultural and moral values of other countries and peoples . Success of this process depends on language acquisition. It’s significant to make a distinction of multilingualism as an individual characteristic in a social group, community, region or country. It promotes a considerable interest in the context of Russia’s integration into the world educational space, gives additional impulse to a man in his language choice. The Law about Languages of the People of Russian Federation also accepts it . How does multilingual education fit into language maintenance? This review covers the implementation of a programme with two and more foreign languages introduced in Kazan comprehensive schools. The objective of research is: working out a policy of language education in the Republic of Tatarstan according to the existing European language standards and obligatory development of multilingualism and State Programme of the Republic of Tatarstan on language maintenance and development ; modelling a concept of development of multilingual personality during foreign language learning in school; updating of higher education curricula of specialties: specific markers of teaching foreign languages in Kazan Federal University. The research data collected allowed to reconsider the factors and norms of teaching foreign languages in the context of multinational Republic of Tatarstan and to model successful multicultural and communicative process of foreign language teaching according to the international experience of multilingual education.
A brief overview of the theoretical frameworks was developed around the theories and concepts: multilingualism (Alladina & Edwards, 1991); acquiring and processing languages (Braine, 1987); language competence (Cummins, 2000; Kondrateva, 2009; Takhtarova, 2017); ideas of polyculture education ( Gardner, 2011; Erikson, 2010; Getmanskaya, 2016; Sabirova, 2015); immersion education (Baidenko, 2003; Johnson & Swain, 1997); techniques and technologies in teaching foreign languages ( Baryshnikov, 2015). Data was collected by the following groups of research methods: comparative analysis, comparison, testing, questionnaires, included observation, modelling method, experimental work.
The research focuses on a number of political, social, demographic, cultural and linguistic factors encouraging language maintenance. Now in the Republic of Tatarstan much attention is paid to studying and preservation of languages, language programmes for preservation and development of state languages of the republic, not only in its territory, but also outside. Exploring the language field of modern school education, forcedly a serious imbalance is noted in its structure.Today the language field of the subject "Foreign language" in Tatarstan schools represents the following picture: in more than 80% of schools English is learned, more than 10% of all schools choose German as a foreign language, a little more than 2% - French, an insignificant percent of schools represents other foreign languages. On the one hand, the prevalence of English faces the educational inquiries of students and their parents, reflects the dominating role of this language in the world, but on the other hand, it should be noted that reduction of a number of schools where German and French languages are taught, eventually violates the rights of children for education. The second foreign language at our schools is not a new phenomenon. Within the general education it is studied by more than 3 thousand school students of the Republic. In 2006 within the Federal target programme of the development of education programmes for the Polish, Italian, Finnish, Turkish, Arab, Korean, Chinese and Japanese languages for all steps of general secondary education were introduced. Development of individual training techniques is necessary for studying rare languages. New tasks assume changes in the requirements of students' proficiency level in a foreign language, ensuring an increase in its quality, definition of new approaches, creating the contents and the use of adequate forms and types of assessment at different stages of foreign language studying at schools and university.
1. Crystal D. (1997) English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2. Edwards, J. (1994) Multilingualism. London: Routledge. 3. Cummins, J. (2000) Putting language proficiency in its place: responding to critiques of the conversational/academic language distinction. 4. Gardner, P. (2011) Teaching and learning in multicultural classroom. Oxon: Routledge. 5. Akopiants A.M., Babitova L.A. (2016) Linguistic landscape of globalization. Philological sciences. Problems of theory and practice, № 12-4 (66) 64-66 . 6. Johnson, R.K. and Swain, M. (1997) Immersion Education: International Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7. "About Languages of the People of Russian Federation". No. 1807-1. 24.07.1998. M, 1998. 8. Kondrateva I. (2009). Formation of communicative and educational competence of future teachers (...) A thesis for a degree of pedagogical sciences / The Tatar state humanitarian and pedagogical university. Kazan, 2009. 9. Sabirova, D.R. (2015). Republic of Tatarstan: priorities of school foreign language education //EDULEARN15 Proceedings 7th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies 2015, Barcelona, Spain; P. 7865-7869. 10. Alladina, S. & Edwards, V., 1991, Multilingualism in the British Isles. London: Longman. 11. Braine, M., 1987, Acquiring and processing first and second languages. In P. HOMEL, M. Palij & D. Aaronson (eds), Childhood Bilingualism: Aspects of Linguistic, Cognitive and Social Development. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 12.Takhtarova S., Sabirova D., Zaripova A., German Language in the Republic of Tatarstan: new educational dimension // EDULEARN15 Proceedings 7th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies 2015, Barcelona, Spain; p. 7840-7843. 13. Getmanskaya M.Y. Educational programs on linguistic area study as a way of forming professional and cultural competence in practice of Russian language teaching. University lections-2016.Pyatigorsk. 2016. - 131-135 pp. 14. Baryshnikov N.V. The magic of innovation. New techniques and technologies in teaching foreign languages. Newscastle upon Tyne: Cambridge scholars publishing, 2015. 350 p. 15. Erikson F. Culture in society and in educational practice. USA; John Wiley, 2010. 16. Gardner P. Teaching and learning in multicultural classroom. Oxon: Routledge, 2011. 17. Baidenko V.I., Van Zantvort J. Modernization of professional education; modern stage. _ Moscow, 2003. 674 pp.
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Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
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