14 SES 07 A, Parenthood, Parental Involvement and Parenting Competences
Grounded in the Education Act of 1998, Norwegian upper secondary schools are to conduct schooling in collaboration and understanding with the students’ home. Refining collaborative practices and shared understandings, aligned with current legislation, are part of the teacher profession’s obligations and commitments to adolescents and their parents. Parents engagement in school have positive effects on students’ academic achievements (Shute et al., 2011; Jeynes, 2012, Wilder, 2014), school motivation (Fan, Williams & Wolters, 2012; Upadyaya & Salmela-Aro, 2013), emotional functioning and mental health (Wang & Sheikh‐Khalil, 2014), as well as on absence and dropout (Blondal & Adalbjarnardottir, 2014). Contrary, it is not uncommon that teachers experience unpleasant emotions or interpersonal conflicts when collaborating with parents (Bæck, 2013; Prilleltensky, Neff & Bessell, 2016). Professional educational practices ground teachers integrity, agency and relations, and give way for teachers subjectivism in everyday practices (Green, 2009). To understand the practice architecture that enable and constrain practicing school-home collaboration, is key if the need for revitalization of such educational practices occur (Kemmis et al, 2014). A rationale for parents mandatory role in adolescents schooling, the adolescents needs for support, as well as knowledge about the role of parents in the particular school system under study, are crucial insights when developing practices.
Self-determination theory (SDT) describe the process of adolescents' becoming autonomous (Deci & Ryan, 2002). Adolescents have innate psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy, all essential for healthy intrinsic motivation, social development, and wellbeing (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000), and perceiving parental autonomy support seems critical for all adolescents (Fousiani et al., 2014). Biesta (2009) acknowledge that aims and ends of education differ across the world, but regardless where, education perform three major functions; to meet children’s needs for qualification, socialization and subjectification. Such aims and ends coincide with adolescents’ need for competence, relatedness and autonomy, as described by SDT, and are the pivotal areas of attention when doing school-home collaboration.
Norway has, together with its fellow Nordic countries, over the last 70 years developed the Nordic Model of Education as part of building the Nordic welfare states (Telhaug, Mediås & Aasen, 2006). The purpose of education and the role of parents in this context are underpinned by values such as equity and equal opportunities, inclusion, social justice, self-regulatory individualisation, democratic participation, and the mantra ‘A school for all’ (Imsen & Volckmar, 2014). Today both schools, parents and adolescents are challenged by transnational educational trends, neoliberalism and a different individualistic attitude (Carlgren et al., 2006; Imsen & Volckmar, 2014), and a need to explore the practice architecture framing the collaborative practices has emerged.
In spite increased legislative specificity and changing circumstances, developing and researching adequate collaboration between school and home are more or less absent in Norwegian upper secondary school (Helgøy & Homme, 2012). This project contribute by illuminating how parental and professional educational practices bundle together, and ask whether it is necessary to re-conceptualize collaborative practices between teachers, parents and adolescents in upper secondary school.
The presentation report results from four Dialogue Cafés involving groups of stakeholders in dialogues about school-home collaboration. The method facilitate a context for discovery, where participants engage in explorative dialogues. As an example, one Dialogue Café take approximately 90 minutes. First 30 minutes, researcher introduce the topic and prepare participation, before 60 minutes are set for participants to engage in dialogues about pre-determined questions. Participants’ are split in four mixed groups, spread on four café tables, and each table have one unique question for discussion. Before start, one person on each table is chosen to be the table-host. This person welcome new groups arriving at the table, introduce the table-question, share what previous groups talked about, and lead the dialogues. The group visit the tables for 15 minutes before moving to the next table for next question. Audio recorders were placed on each table recording the dialogues. At the end of the session, each table-question generated 60 minutes recordings, captured 4 x 15 minutes accumulated dialogues. In total, according to this example, the four tables recorded 240 minutes, conducted 16 dialogues, and covered four questions. The Dialogue Cafés involved six upper secondary schools from one county/region, and involved in total 75 participants (students, teachers, school leaders, and teacher educators). Another Dialogue Café involved 113 young adults. The four questions; 1) students formal talks with subject teachers, contact teacher, and the parent conference, 2) legislation framing school-home collaboration in upper secondary school, 3) design of an Annual Circle of practicing school-home collaboration, and 4) site specific challenges recognizing diversity and psychosocial difficulties.
The analytical approach was to analyse the practice architecture that held practices togheter at the particular site and to discuss whether it is time to re-conceptualize school-home collaboration in upper secondary school in Norway. What are the ‘sayings’, ‘doings’ and ‘relatings’ that help identify, describe and analyse the school-home collaboration. What enable or constrain practicing school-home collaboration addressing the adolescents’ needs for autonomy support? The adolescents' role in this threefold collaborative relationship between parents, teachers and adolescents will be illuminated.
Biesta,G. (2009). Good education in an age of measurement: On the need to reconnect with the question of purpose in education. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 21(1):33-46. Blondal,K.S. & Adalbjarnardottir,S. (2014). Parenting in relation to school dropout through student engagement: A longitudinal study. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76(4):778-795. Bæck,U. (2013). Lærer-foreldre relasjoner under press. Barn, 31(4):11. Carlgren,I., Klette,K., Myrdal,S., Schnack,K. & Simola,H. (2006). Changes in Nordic teaching practices: From individualised teaching to the teaching of individuals. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 50(3):301-326. Deci,E.L. & Ryan,R.M. (2000). The" what" and" why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological inquiry, 11(4):42. Fousiani,K., Van Petegem,S., Soenens,B., Vansteenkiste,M. & Chen,B. (2014). Does parental autonomy support relate to adolescent autonomy? An in-depth examination of a seemingly simple question. Journal of Adolescent Research, 29(3):30. Green,B. (2009). Introduction: Understanding and researching professional practice. Understanding and researching professional practice. Green,B., Sense Publishers Rotterdam:1-18. Helgøy,I. & Homme,A.D. (2012). Sammen for en bedre skole? Evaluering av lokale prosjekter om hjem–skole-samarbeid. Delrapport, Uni Rokkansenteret. Imsen,G. & Volckmar,N. (2014). The Norwegian School for All: Historical Emergence and Neoliberal Confrontation. The Nordic Education Model: 'A School for All'. U. Blossing, G. Imsen and L. Moos, Springer:35-55. Jeynes,W. (2012). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of different types of parental involvement programs for urban students. Urban Education, 47(4):706-742. Kemmis,S., Wilkinson,J., Edward-Groves,C., Hardy,I., Grootenboer,P., & Bristol,L. (2014). Changing practices, changing education, Springer Science & Business Media. Prilleltensky,I., Neff,M. & Bessell,A. (2016). Teacher stress: what it is, why it's important, how it can be alleviated. Theory into practice, 55(2):8. Ryan,R.M. & Deci,E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American psychologist, 55(1):12. Shute,V.J., Hansen,E.G., Underwood,J.S. & Razzouk,J (2011). A review of the relationship between parental involvement and secondary school students' academic achievement. Education Research International, 2011:1-10. Telhaug,A.O., Mediås,O.A. & Aasen,P. (2006). The Nordic model in education: Education as part of the political system in the last 50 years. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 50(3):245-283. Upadyaya,K. & Salmela-Aro,K. (2013). Development of school engagement in association with academic success and well-being in varying social contexts: A review of empirical research. European Psychologist, 18(2):12. Wang,M.T. & Sheikh‐Khalil,S. (2014). Does parental involvement matter for student achievement and mental health in high school? Child Development 85(2):610-625. Wilder,S. (2014). Effects of parental involvement on academic achievement: a meta-synthesis. Educational Review, 66(3):377-397.
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