ERG SES D 09, Histories of Education
The invention of the Republic, the constitution of the citizen and the massification of primary schools are part of a coproduction process where none of the three variables takes place without the existence of the other two. The Republic can not exist without citizens who defend, finance and legitimize it, nor without schools where individuals are endowed with the attributes that constitute them as citizens; For its part, the citizen can not exist without the schools where they are formed as such, from the assumption of certain attributes such as knowing how to read, write, basic arithmetic operations and rights learning and especially the duties that the exercise of citizenship implies; finally, the first schools are due to the laws, decrees, curricula and codes that the officials of the Republic promulgate and to the financing that the citizens contribute.
The main objective of the paper is to characterize and analyze the educational practices that took place in the primary schools of Colombia between 1819 and 1831. These practices were organized by the educational communities that made up the schools of first letters: directives, teachers and students and had as main expectation the moral education of the citizen to, in this way and by extension, lay the moral foundations of the Republic and redirect the citizen to its natural state.
The use of education as a strategy for shaping the moral foundations of the Republic, the establishment of a new political subject -the citizen- and renewal of the human being to its natural state involved a particular tactics drived by the republican authorities found and by the members of the parish communities that revolved around the ideal of alphabetizing the population politically and idiomatically. Among the tactics arranged by the authorities are the founding and financing of new schools of first letters, the training and evaluation of teachers and the creation, printing and circulation of moral and political catechisms, these practices are nominated with the category of governmental educational practice analyzes. On the other hand, the practices that took place in the school space and that were aimed at moralizing the children of the republic, are called scholastic educational practices. These had the lancansteriano system as a reference of first order, especially in the first decade of republican life in Colombia, which is why the Manual of the mutual teaching system will be one of the main primary sources to use.
The research question is: what was the role of education in Colombia and what kind of practices were followed in primary schools between 1819 and 1831 in the framework of the process of invention of the Republic and the process of constitution of the citizen?
The co-production analysis category has been taken from the book States of Kwowledge by Scheila Jasanof in which it is used to account for the relationship between knowledge, culture and political power. This network of relationships is contingent, historically and geographically localized, which fits very well with the interests of this research work which it is committed to an analysis that seeks to understand social action in general and educational practices in particular through their study such as social technologies, as co-producers and as co-products of various agents. Another theoretical source that has served for the characterization of the coproduction category have been the works developed by Karl Marx for the study of the production of merchandise, since is complementary to clarify the practices through which the Republic, the citizen and the schools of first letters were producers and products reciprocally indispensable in a moment of historical acceleration as that of the post-independence, because "Each one of the terms is not limited to being the other immediately neither the mediator of the other, but rather , realizing itself, creates the other and creates itself as another ". The educational practices take place in spaces of concrete sociability where social life develops. At the beginning of the 19th century in Colombia, one of the spaces that became the epicenter of these was the school of first letters. Thus, the paper described and analyzed the educational practices that took place in the schools of first letters of the Province of Bogotá (Colombia) with the expectation of laying the moral foundations of the Republic: memorization, discipline, repetition, hierarchy, use of school texts and public examination. The chapter is divided into three sections in which are presented the educational practices that in the field of the school of first letters were followed with the purpose of inventing the republic and constituting the citizen. It ends with some conclusions that aim to demarcate new investigative routes in the task of glimpsing the historical role of education in the construction of socio-political projects such as those of the Republic or citizenship.
In Colombia, between 1819 and 1831 it was decided to form the citizen through the massification of primary schools leaving behind forms of education individualized the monarchical period and introducing an educational model that sought to systematize interactions that occurred in the school space. Precisely, it was with this expectation that the republican authorities went to the system of mutual teaching of Joseph Lancaster. In order to understand the role that education played in the invention of the Republic of Colombia and the constitution of the citizen, it is important to describe and analyze the educational practices that took place within the school of first letters, which is why this paper, describe and analyze the practices that were followed or expected to be followed in the classrooms of the schools of first letters with the aim of laying the moral foundations of the Republic under construction, redirecting the child to its natural state and constituting the citizen . The main scholastic practices were: the literacy of the children of the fatherland, the hierarchy and disciplining of the students within the school classroom, the periodization of the day, the memorization of the moral principles of the republic (duties and rights of the citizen), the repetition of the moral and civic tenets of the Republic, the public examination and the use of catechisms and textbooks in the classrooms.
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