10 SES 12 C, Research on Professional Knowledge & Identity in Teacher Education
The purpose of this study is to reveal classroom management practices of effective teachers. In accordance with this general purpose, it is aimed to reach teacher typologies based on the classroom management practices. These typologies are thought to provide teachers a framework for effective classroom management practices and why some teachers have more impact on students. Classroom management as the actions teachers take to create an environment that supports and facilitates both academic and social-emotional learning (Evertson & Weinstein, 2006). Therefore, classroom management does not mean to sit quietly, do homework or respond to the demands of teachers, but to provide students with learning opportunities they need (Milner & Tenore, 2010). Effective classroom management is not only required for successful learning environment but also for quality of teachers (Silvestri, 2001). However, it is seen that classroom management skills are overlooked in teacher education and their professional career. Consistent with these data, preservice teacher education often relegates the topic of classroom management to a few class sessions in an educational psychology or general methods course. Moreover, there is little consensus about what should be included in classroom management courses; some teacher educators emphasize strategies and skills for preventing and dealing with problem behaviors whereas others present various models of classroom management (Evertson & Emmer, 2013). As a result, teacher training on classroom management is ineffective in finding solutions to the problems they encounter (Brouwer & Korthagen, 2000). Teachers with lack of experience and knowledge in the field of classroom management learn many things by trial and error (Flores & Day, 2006; Pellegrino, 2010), and might make many mistakes which affect both teachers and students negatively. For this reason, teachers have to spend so much time on dealing with disruptive behaviors of students rather than providing learning opportunities to students (Shin & Koh, 2007). Absence of appropriate classroom management reduces teacher effectiveness, bringing stress to educators and students alike (Marzano, 2003). It is important to examine classroom management practices of teachers and provide a framework based on effective practices. However, it is concluded that the research which is conducted on classroom management practices of teachers aims to examine classroom management practices of teachers via surveys or scales with basic statistical analysis in Turkey. Although there are many books and research on classroom management, the main problem is that they are mostly based on theoretical knowledge. Therefore, they are too abstract for teacher and ineffective in dealing with the problems in practice. In this context, in order to reflect accurately what is happening in the classes and to provide realistic solutions to the problems, it is necessary to carry out research based on long-term observations in real-class environment instead of taking snapshots of teachers' practices. This study will provide teachers with an understanding about classroom management skills they need by revealing classroom management mechanisms of effective teachers and teacher typologies with long-term observations and interviews. It is impossible to say there is one way to become an effective teacher. Teachers have to wear different hats in class. Therefore, teachers will learn the ways to be effective by choosing the most suitable typology or combining different typologies.
In this study, qualitative research design is used. Qualitative research design aims to develop insights on how people make sense of their lives, to understand the functioning of these meaningful processes and to describe how people interpret their life experiences. In order to examine every typology as a case multiple case study is used in this study. Therefore, every typology is seen as a case but bounded with experiences, knowledge and practices of teachers on classroom management. The data are obtained through one-year observations, focus group interviews, individual interviews, documents and artifacts. The participants of this study consist of 16 teachers working in secondary schools and their students. The snowball sampling is used to select participants. Effective teachers are chosen via knowledge received from other teachers, school administrators and students. First of all, a sample pool including 25 teachers is formed depending on references of their colleagues. After observing the classroom practices of these teachers, 16 effective teachers are determined for this study. Determining the sample, these teachers are observed for one year in two classes with different characteristics. The data is analysed by using inductive qualitative content analysis. An inductive approach has been adopted since the themes and categories are obtained by interacting with each other. Code, category and theme hierarchy has been established. After the development of codes, creation of themes from the codes and organisation of the themes into larger units, interpretation process has begun.
According to findings obtained from this study, classroom management practices of effective teachers are examined under the themes as (i) constructing authority, (ii) building positive relationship with students, teachers and parents, (iii) organising and implementing instruction, (iv) constructing class rules and routines, (v) managing disruptive behaviour, (vi) maintaining appropriate behaviour with incentives and awards, (vii) recommendations to teachers. Ten teacher typologies are reached depending on classroom management practices of effective teachers. These typologies are as actor, psychologist, captain, parent, techie, expert, coach, warrior, comedian, magician. Every typology focuses on the different aspects of classroom management. While actor is mostly using games or creative drama, coach is trying to set balance between group dynamics in the classroom or comedian’s main goal is to make learning fun. Apart from these main typologies, teachers could also show features of different typologies. A kind of transition between typologies is seen in this study. Teachers adopt their classroom management practices according to individual differences of students, needs or environment in which they are. Students also could align themselves with teachers. In other words, students behave depending on teachers’ attitude or behaviour. Therefore, teacher immediacy plays a critical role in the class. It could increase the willingness of students to cooperate and decrease their resistance to learning and teachers. Getting the school year off to a good start, immediacy, trying to reach every child, making learning environment attractive, and maintaining the appropriate behaviour with incentives and rewards are the other characteristics of effective teachers under typologies determined in this study. However, every typology uses different techniques in order to be effective. Therefore, examining the classroom management practices from different typologies in real classroom environments provide many opportunities to improve teacher education.
Evertson, C. M., & Weinstein, C. S. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues. Routledge. Evertson, C., & Emmer, E. (2013). Classroom management for elementary teachers (9th ed.). US: Pearson. Milner, H. R., & Tenore, F. B. (2010). Classroom management in diverse classrooms. Urban Education, 45(5), 560-603. Silvestri, L. (2001). Pre-Service teachers' self-reported knowledge of classroom management. Education, 121(2), 575. Brouwers, A., & Tomic, W. (2000). A longitudinal study of teacher burnout and perceived self-efficacy in classroom management. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(2), 239-253. Marzano, R. J. (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Shin, S., & Koh, M. S. (2007). A cross-cultural study of teachers’ beliefs and strategies on classroom behavior management in urban American and Korean school systems. Education and Urban Society, 39(2), 286-309.
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