14 SES 03 A, Immigrant Parents, Refugees and the Burden on Teachers: Contributions from Austria, Canada, Spain
In the context of the recent economic crisis, the cuts suffered in a policy issue related to education, health, social and housing have affected society, but especially the most vulnerable groups. Furthermore, social services, the education and health system do not present specific plans for the care of refugees or asylum seekers.
According to the data of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (2018), a total of 104,300 refugees and migrants entered Europe through Italy, Greece and Spain in the 2018. It is a fact that, the number of refugees and migrants who have reached Spain both by land and sea routes is 53,100. The five most common nationalities of sea arrivals in Spain are Moroccans (21%), Guineans (21%), Malians (16%), Ivoirians (8%) and Algerians (7%).
This context brings with it the strengthening, by the Government, of the system of reception and inclusion, translated into an increase in places offered by non-governmental organizations financed by the Ministry of Labor, Migration and Social Security (Comisión Española de Ayuda al Refugiado - CEAR, 2018).
The European Commission has adopted an Action Plan on the integration of migrants. The Action Plan provides a comprehensive framework to support Member States' efforts in developing integration policies (European Commission, 2016).
The Recommendation of the European Commission (European Commission, 2017) which includes the resettlement plan 2015-2017 and 2017-2019 as an improvement of the legal ways for people who need international protection in the states members. This is the framework that gives rise to the Unintegra Project (University leading full and stepwise approach to the integration of refugees) is co-funded by the Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF) of the European Commission. The main purpose of this Project is to encourage the integration of refugees and their relocation process in the European countries that joined in 2015 to the European resettlement agreement.
Likewise, the Unintegra Project, is led by the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) and with the participation of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greece), the Universidade do Minho (Portugal), the City Council of Santiago de Compostela, the Fundació Acsar (Spain) and the Fundació Universitaria Balmes (Spain). It is convenient, therefore, to highlight, aims at efficiently managing immigrant populations while responding to the needs of those in need of protection, attending two interrelated levels. Firstly, directly working with new arrivals to address basic needs of integration, in conjunction with fostering receptive attitudes in host communities. Secondly, establishing a normative framework in each target community.
Specifically, between actions of the Project, there is a transnational cooperation among the 3 universities. This research project for integration deal issues such as the analyse the aspects that constitute a priority and a challenge in integration policies. In the same line, the primary attention required by the most vulnerable groups and support for integration, such as the woman and the children. The objective of this work package is to sensitize the academic and local community and facilitate the integration of third-country nationals, through their integration with the host community, and to transfer to the regional, national and international authorities guidelines and proposals for integration, to incorporate in the field of social and educational policies (see Unintegra, 2019).
The aim of the present paper is to study the psycho-metric properties of a integration scale for refugees, asylum seekers, subsidiary or international protection in Spain.
Instrument This study is based on a quantitative methodology, a “Questionnaire on Integration of Refugee Families” (CIFRE) that has been used as instrument and it devised by the research team based on instruments created in other contexts. Specifically, we follow a model of integration of Ager and Strang (2008) focused on four indicators: markers and means (employment, housing, education, health); social connection (social bridges, social bonds, social links); facilitators (language and cultural knowledge, safety and stability) and foundation (rights and citizenships) This questionnaire aimed at refugees, asylum seekers, subsidiary or international protection families. It consists of a total of 36 questions, formulated in closed (22) and open (8) categories, and six Likert-type question. In particular, this paper is focused on the integration scale, that means, about the life in Spain of the participants. This Likert-scale was adapted from Beverluis, Schoeller-Díaz, Anderson, Anderson, Slaughter and Patel (2016), and it consists of 26 items with five response choices. Participants In particular, a total of 141 third-country nationals living in Spain participate in the study, of which 47.6% are men and 52.4% are women, ranging in age from 18 to 65 (M = 36.36; SD= 10.23). With regard to their residence status in the host country, 73.2% are asylum seekers, 21% refugees, 4.3% with subsidiary protection and 1.4% are applicants for international protection. Mainly, come from Venezuela (48.2%), Syria (15.6%), Colombia (8.5%), Nigeria (5.7), Ukraine (5.7) and Georgia (3.5%).
The dimensionality of the scale was determined by an Exploratory Factorial Analysis (EFA), following the Principal Components extraction method and a Varimax rotation. The KMO tests = .645 and χ2 (325) = 1241.22 p < .001 reported good sampling adequacy and a significant correlation between items, respectively. The initial extraction yielded six significant factors that justify 56.05% of variance, with a good internal consistency (the α values range from .51 to .81). Specifically, the results of the matrix of rotated components are the following: - Factor I: equal rights with the citizens of target community (α = .81): item 21 (.610), item 22 (.801), item 23 (.485), item 24 (.764), item 25 (.781) and item 26 (.676). - Factor II: perception of discriminatory attitudes by the host community (α = .74): item 6 (.588), item 7 (.717), item 8 (.684), item 13 (.757) and item 20 (.641). - Factor III: employment, economic and housing conditions (α = .61): item 15 (.507), item 16 (.704), item 17 (.788), item 18 (.396) and item 19 (.448). - Factor IV: perception of positive attitudes (α = .63): item 1 (.765), item 4 (.690), and item 5 (.586). - Factor V: social and community relations (α = .60): item 2 (.453), item 3 (.340), item 9 (.759), item 10 (.453) and item 11 (.724). - Factor VI: actions of national and local authorities (α = .51): item 12 (.707) and item 14 (.814). The exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses indicate that the scale has a good fit result and a satisfactory solution in its factorial structure of the scale and in the levels of internal consistency.
Ager, A., & Strang, A. (2008). Understanding Integration: A Conceptual Framework. Journal of Refugee Studies, 21(2),166-191. Beverluis, D., Schoeller-Diaz, D., Anderson, M., Anderson, N., Slaughter, A., & Patel, R. (2016). Developing and Validating the Refugee Integration Scale in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Refugee Studies, 30(1), 106-132. Comisión Española de Ayuda al Refugiado - CEAR. (2018). Informe 2018: Las personas refugiadas en España y Europa. Madrid: Ministerio de Empleo y Seguridad Social. European Commission. (2016). Action Plan on the integration of third country nationals. Brussels: European Commission. European Commission. (2017). Commission Recommendation (EU) 2017/1803 of 3 October 2017 on enhancing legal pathways for persons in need of international protection. Retrieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reco/2017/1803/oj Unintegra. (2019). Web page Unintegra Project USC. Retrieved from https://unintegra.usc.es/index.php United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees - UNHCR. (2018). Europe Monthly Report: October. Suiza: Autor.
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