04 SES 07 A, Intercultural Competences For Inclusion: Comparing Different Narratives
This study is based on the investigation about intercultural education, particularly in the studies about the development and assessment of intercultural competence. The questions that guided the investigation were: Are schools responding to the demands which are proper to the development of an inclusive culture from the intercultural education approach? Is intercultural competence being developed in children from schools in an indigenous context? And how can a learning program be proposed for its development?
In this context, the study focused on two main theoretical axes: i) Intercultural Education. In the intercultural approach of educational policies, cultural differences are acknowledged, which does not mean that some cultures are above others. Students should be trained to live in a society where cultural diversity is acknowledged as legitimate and where cultural differences are considered a common wealth and not a factor of division (Guzmán, 2016). In its pedagogical dimension, interculturality proposes an educational action from knowledge interaction in the process that strengthens people's cultural and linguistic identity. This involves training interculturally competent human beings, autonomous people who understand reality from different cultural points of view, who respect diversity and get enriched by it (Aguado, 2011 & López-Sánchez, 2015). ii) Intercultural competence. According to Deardorff (2011), intercultural competence is a combination of specific skills such as: (1) positive attitudes towards cultural diversity; (2) Communicative skills (3) the ability to handle conflicts in intercultural situations and, (4) the ability to be aware of one's own culture and of the way in which this one influences the view and interpretation of reality. Meanwhile Anglo-Saxon tradition proposes the concept of intercultural communicative competence, in which the abilities of verbal and nonverbal communication are an important component, especially in multilingual contexts (Bennet, 2013; Koester & Lustig, 2015; Martin, 2015; Neuliep, 2017 & Vilà, 2007).
The objective of the investigation was to design and evaluate a learning program for the development of the intercultural competence in primary rural schools in the context of indigenous cultural diversity.
The theoretical framework of reference is in line with the whole development of the affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of intercultural competence. These must be included in the school curriculum as essential skills for the formation of citizenship, and be addressed from more specific training and educational strategies with groups or in particular educational contexts. As a central hypothesis, there is a proposal which considers students to be benefited by the program for the development of intercultural competence to get a more significative improvement regarding knowledge, abilities and intercultural attitude. On the other hand, and considering that the students who participated in this study have been trained in the mapuche language and culture, this investigation gathered information about the incidence of this variable together with the variable which considers the bonds to people from other cultures.
A mixed methodology was used in the Descriptive-Evaluated level. The design is of quantitative dominant status with sequential application through the three empirical studies. An intentional sample composed by 70 students was studied, 51 of indigenous descent (73%); It is distributed into 42 boys and 28 girls, whose ages are between 10 and 13 years old. In addition, 6 school teachers participated in the focus group, 3 of indigenous descents (50%), 4 are females and 2 are males, the ages range from 30 to 55 years old. The following techniques and data collection instruments were used in the first empirical study: a) Review of documentation sources: Information from the database of the bilingual intercultural education program (BIEP), database of the schools to characterize the school population. b) Questionnaire: A template questionnaire for instrument evaluation was used considering the experts’ judgment proposed by Escobar-Perez and Cuervo-Martinez (2008). The following techniques and data collection instruments were used in the second and third study: a) Focus group: interview handouts were used for the development of focus groups with teachers from the school in two occasions. The first handout about three central topics: cultural diversity, development of the intercultural competence in students and, barriers and facilitators for intercultural interaction. The second handout was based on a central topic: learning and assessment of the implemented program. b) Scale of intercultural sensitivity: Likert type scale of 5 points, 22 items, and five dimensions: Implication in the interaction, respect for cultural differences, trust, extent to which interaction and attention are enjoyed during conversation (Chen, 2010). The instrument was adapted and validated through by experts’ judgment. The final punctuation of the scale goes between a minimum of 22 points, undecided score of 66 points and a maximum of 110 points. Reliability based on Cronbach’s alpha ծ =0’83. c) Test of intercultural communicative competence: Questionnaire that measures intercultural communicative competence, it is composed of 18 cases and two dimensions: Cognitive competencies and behavioral competencies (Vila, 2007). The instrument was submitted to a validation process of the content by means of experts’ judgment. On the other hand, the internal consistency of the instrument was also estimated based on the covariation of the items. The final score of the test ranges between a minimum of 0 points, an undecided score of 9 points and a maximum of 18 points. Reliability based on Cronbach’s alpha ծ=0’69.
In relation to the central hypothesis, the students have shown an acceptable level of development of the intercultural communicative competence measured in three dimensions: affective, cognitive and behavioral skills. It becomes apparent that there is a need to provide the students with opportunities to develop their own cultural conscience and interest for the other far beyond tolerance. Specifically, there are major needs in the development of behavioral skills, apart from attitudes such as awareness and implication in the interaction. Students’ experiences for learning and cultural exchange have a significant impact on the development of positive attitudes towards cultural differences. Affective bonds with people from other cultures have a particular importance in the development of a higher intercultural sensitivity and intercultural knowledge. Pedagogical programs for the development of intercultural competence require the acquisition of interaction experiences by the students towards people, environment and situations of cultural diversity in which the affective bond, such as reflection and cultural conscience, is reinforced. This study will provide educators and other professionals who are interested in the formation of intercultural citizens with a training program for the development of intercultural competence which responds to the requirements to be met by students who live in rural areas in an indigenous context. This study is foreseen as the starting point for the design of other initiatives to complement the work carried out by the Program of Bilingual Intercultural Education in the intercultural education of children and adolescents.
Aguado, T. (2011). El enfoque intercultural en la búsqueda de buenas prácticas escolares. Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Inclusiva, 5(2), 23-42. Retrieved of http://www.rinace.net/rlei/numeros/vol5-num2/art1.pdf Bennett, M. (2013). Basic concepts of intercultural communication: Paradigms, principles, & practices. Boston: Intercultural Press. Chen, G. M. (2010). The impact of intercultural sensitivity on ethnocentrism and intercultural communication apprehension. Intercultural Communication Studies, 19(1), 1-9. Retrieved of https://web.uri.edu/iaics/files/01Guo-MingChen.pdf Cubo, S., Martín, B., & Ramos J. L. (2011). Métodos de investigación y análisis de datos en ciencias sociales y de la salud. Madrid: Pirámide. Deardorff, D. K. (2011). Assessing intercultural competence. New Directions for Institutional Research, 149, 65-79. Escobar-Pérez, J., & Cuervo-Martínez, A. (2008). Validez de contenido y juicio de expertos: una aproximación a su utilización. Avances en medición, 6(1), 27-36. Retrieved of http://www.humanas.unal.edu.co/psicometria/files/7113/8574/5708/Articulo3_Juicio_de_expertos_27-36.pdf Guzmán, M. (2016). La educación como un medio de inclusión para los menos favorecidos. Augusto Guzzo Revista Acadêmica, 17, 100-132. Retrieved of http://www.fics.edu.br/index.php/augusto_guzzo/article/view/329 Hammer, M. R., Bennett, M. J., & Wiseman, R. (2003). Measuring intercultural sensitivity: The Intercultural Development Inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27(4), 421-443. Koester, J., & Lustig, M. W. (2015). Intercultural communication competence: Theory, measurement, and application. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 48, 20-21. Retrieved of https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.03.006 López-Sánchez, J. (2015). Infancia y educación intercultural. RELADEI. Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Infantil, 4(3), 13-18. Retrieved of http://redaberta.usc.es/reladei/documentos/volumenes/volumen4_n3_completo.pdf Martin, J. N. (2015). Revisiting intercultural communication competence: Where to go from here. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 48, 6-8. Retrieved of https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.03.008 Neuliep, J. W. (2017). Intercultural communication: A contextual approach. Sage Publications. Quilaqueo, D., Quintriqueo, S., & San Martín, D. (2018). Contenido de aprendizajes educativos mapuches para el marco conceptual de un currículum escolar intercultural. Chile: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Temuco. Vilà Baños, R. (2007). Comunicación Intercultural: Materiales para secundaria. España: Narcea Ediciones.
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