03 SES 08 A, Curriculum Change (with ICT) to Innovate Education
This paper outlines the use of Third Space theory to support teaching and learning, it presents research using multiple case methods to explore an innovative framework for its use in the mobile learning field. This research aims to better understand the potential of mobile learning and develop a framework for mobile assisted third spaces (MATS). The symbiotic nature of Third Space theory and mobile pedagogy is presented and the potential of MATS to support mobile learning practices are explored.
This paper describes Third Space learning practices. The concepts of space and place have been deconstructed during the last century and several iterations of Third Space theory have been developed through the works of Soja (1996), Oldenburg (1989) and Bhabha (1994). Third Space theory has since been applied to gain further epistemological and ontological understandings in a wide range of disciplines including education. Soja (1996) suggested that space cannot be understood as fixed and that it is no longer enough to accept it as a container of activity and individuals rather space is experienced as a process through which relationships and identities are produced. The inauguration of Third Space concepts into the field of educational technology has built pace over the last decade (Aaen & Dalsgaard & 2016).
Research findings highlight several recurring features of Third Space theory for learning: Collaboration, Reflection, Democracy, Transferability, Hybrid discourse and Transformation. The paper presents a multiple case study which analyses m-learning activities in relation to these characteristics of Third Space learning and presents findings around the symbiotic nature of the two concepts. There is a synergetic relationship between Third Space theory, mobile pedagogy and wider socio cultural pedagogies which is the central topic of this research. Current research has generated an anterior framework for considering Mobile Assisted Third Spaces (MATS) in educational contexts (see Fig. 1).
Fig 1. Mobile Assisted Third Spaces (MATS) diagram
Findings highlight hierarchical application of Third Space as a teaching method. At the macro level identified a philosophical shift towards Third Space concepts (Flessner, 2014), at a meso level Third Space underpins the module/syllabus (Idrus, 2015), at the micro level it underpins a lesson plan or specific activity (Aaen & Dalsgaard, 2016). Findings also demonstrate a hierarchical relationship between sociocultural pedagogy, mobile pedagogy and Third Space pedagogy. These facets of MATS will be discussed further through the presentation and paper.
This research highlights similarities between m-Learning practices and Third Space learning. It shows evidence that MATS are present both by default and design. This paper presents MATS as an innovative and transformational practice of 21st Century learning. MATS application offers an opportunity to disrupt traditional teaching and learning practices and is a current and relevant pedagogy for contemporary educational practices. The development of MATS answers calls from the field of educational technology for the application of wider theoretical understandings to teaching and learning with technology (Koole et al, 2018). It has the potential to support the reconstruction of traditional time/space concepts and initiate the necessary changes in contemporary understanding of roles, practices, curriculum and timetable in a wide range of settings to fully exploit the opportunities of learning with modern technology (Schuck & Maher, 2018).
Using a qualitative, interpretative methodology the study employs a multiple case design. The research questions below have organically formed from the original (Main) research question at the start of the literature review. After reviewing recent research on mobile learning and Third Space theory a conceptual framework has been developed which justifies the amalgamation mobile learning specific pedagogy with the six features of Third Space learning generated from the literature review. This framework is used to formulate research in the areas of the sub research questions. Main research question: What potential does Third Space Theory hold for mobile specific pedagogy? Sub research questions What is Third Space theory in relation to mobile pedagogy? Which mobile learning pedagogues relate to Third Space features? How appropriate is the IPAC Framework for fostering a Mobile Assisted Third Space (MATS)? What are the advantages and disadvantages to Mobile Assisted Third Space (MATS) in practice? What are the affordances of MATS from student & teacher perspectives? What are the consequences of Mobile Assisted Third Spaces (MATS) for teaching and learning? Data Collection Process • Obtain and review lesson plans specifically modelled on the iPAC Framework • Observe those lessons as a participant observer making field notes and taking photos of activities and artefacts for use in interviews/ focus groups • Interview lesson teachers (semi – structured) • Conduct focus group with students The study has been granted ethical approval by the principle researcher's institution and is conducted in accordance with BERA's ethical guidelines.
The symbiotic existence of m-Learning pedagogy and Third Space learning practices is evident. There is clear potential for mobile assisted Third Spaces (MATS) to support the development of contemporary educational praxis and offer an innovative framework for 21st Century learning. The future focus of this research is to empirically explore the affordances of MATS and refine a framework to support m-Learning pedagogy; these findings will be presented as part of this research paper presentation.
Aaen, J & Dalsgaard, C., (2016). Student Facebook groups as a third space: between social life and schoolwork. Learning, Media and Technology, Vol 41, No.1, pp 160-186. Bhabha, H., (1994). The Location of Culture, Routledge, London EVolvi, G., (2017) Hybrid Muslim identities in digital space: The Italian blog Yalla, Social Compass. Vol 64, No. 2, pp220-232 Flessner, R., (2014) Revisiting Reflection: Utilizing Third Spaces in Teacher Education, The Educational Forum, Vol 78, No. 3, pp231-247. Idrus, F., (2015). Examining Classroom Transformational Spaces Using the Third Space Theory in Developing Students’ Sense of Shared Identity, Theory and Practice in Language Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 28-37. Koole, M., et al, (2018). A Comparison of the uptake of two research models in mobile learning: The FRAME Model and the 3-Level Evaluation Framework, Education Sciences, Vol 8, pp114 Lapp, D. (2014). Blended Learning as a third space, Voices from the Middle, Volume 22 Number 2, pp7-9. Oldenburg, R., (1989). The Great Good Place, Da Capo Press, Cambridge, USA Schuck, S. & Maher, D. (2018). Creating Opportunities for Untethered learning, Technology, Pedagogy and Education. Online Soja, E (1996), Third Space, journeys to Los Angeles and other real and imagined places, Blackwell, Oxford
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