05 SES 01, Supporting Vulnerable Individuals
In this contribution we present both the framework and the first advances of one of the four cases studied that make up the research project 'Nomads of knowledge in emerging pedagogical contexts: mapping disruptive practices in Secondary Education ", funded by the" COTECT Foundation for innovation”.
The project is based on the needs and demands arising in the current context of the "knowmadic society" (Cobo, 2013), in which formal education is developed within the framework of the augmented society and multiple literacies. We intend to examine the life inside and outside the schools and their classrooms, where interactions are proliferated around technological creations, communication platforms, videogames or mobile apps. All these are environments where learning experiences can be used by secondary schools and by the professionals who work in them (Gorodetsky & Barak, 2014).
In this paper, in addition to presenting some general issues of the project, we focus on one of the case studies, related to ‘José Manuel Torrijos Secondary School’ (onwards Torrijos) located in a socio-culturally disadvantaged neighbourhood of the city of Malaga. The profile of students mainly comes from broken families, from very diverse ethnic groups and with large socio-educational deficits. Also, until recently, the role of teachers has been unstable and little interest in a deep educative school project.
This research presents four strategic axes with their corresponding objectives in order to create a "Laboratory of emerging pedagogies and disruptive practices":
1) Transmedia competences, technological mediations and informal learning strategies. Objective: Identify, describe and analyze educational practices based on the use of transmedia communication and digital networks inside and outside the school.
2) Development of emerging pedagogies for meaningful learning. Objective: Systematize educational practices, away from traditional linear models of the prescribed curriculum, and that provide meaningful and authentic experiences that overcome the physical and organizational boundaries of the classroom.
3) Disruptive intervention strategies through Art and Visual Culture. Objective: Identify contexts for the artistic experience in the school and public spaces through a series of procedures that incorporate forms of production and inquiry of visual, poetic, corporal, musical and narrative type.
4) Critical literacy practices in the digital, intercultural and plurilinguistic society. Objective: Identify, analyze and disseminate educational projects based on the training of readers of all kinds of cultural texts, placing them in the sociocultural and discursive context from which student and teachers start.
In this regard, according to Martín Barbero (2012), our society has changed and knowledge circulates mainly in three axes: (1) a movement of decentering books and school; (2) a de-localization / de-temporalization movement (Burbules, 2014) that transforms the places and times where knowledge resides (UNESCO, 2012); and (3) a movement that connects science and school knowledge with social experience and experimentation (Downes, 2017).
In this new society 3.0 learning conditions are changing, fragmented and confusing (Díaz y Freire, 2012; Fernández Enguita, 2013; Race & Makri, 2016). This means that a series of new skills and competences are demanded for a new citizenship of the 21st century. At the same time, a number of new tendencies emerge within this "knowmadic society" (Cobo, 2013), such as the use of informal and flexible learning methods linked to continuous education. This scenario change (a) what and how we learn, (b) the role played by ICT and new literacies, and (c) the development of critical thinking skills.
We believe that new spaces are opened by design of learning proposals based on an experimental and applied epistemological positioning within formal institutions (Piscitelli, 2009, 2010), all this in a context where media and communication networks of the so-called augmented society coexist (Ferrés, 2008).
In the broader framework of the project, firstly, the focus of study is the development of a "cartography" that allows to recognize the fundamental issues in the development of emerging pedagogies and disruptive educational practices in each case. Secondly, to create a "Laboratory of emerging pedagogies and disruptive practices" (Buckingham, 2010, Adell and Castañeda, 2013, Martín Barbero, 2015), which allow the exchange and transmission of knowledge among the work teams in the schools, groups of pedagogical renovation, associations of families and students. The research design and strategies are interpretive, hermeneutical, collaborative, non-invasive and negotiated. We use case studies and a participatory methodology in order to implement the four strategic axes mentioned above. The project is developed in two phases. The first corresponds to the selection and development of each case study (Yin, 1994, Stake, 1995, Bassey, 1999, Gomm, Hammersley and Foster, 2004, Simons, 2011), which is part of the project and the definition of problems or issues. In the end, we compose a Multicase study in order to achieve the validity and credibility of the resulting theoretical propositions (Eisenhardt and Graebner, 2007). In the specific case of the Torrijos, the process has been a collaborative and permanent negotiation with teachers and, in some moments, with the students. The selection of the case was determined by the pedagogical potential of the proposals of a new teaching team that face a situation of pedagogical paralysis. With this new group of teachers we agree on mixed research strategies defined in three research scenarios: (1) Case study itself, through interviews, discussion groups, documentary analysis and audio-visual records; (2) evaluative research, in order to transfer to the secondary school the advances that are taking in the processes of transformation of educational practices in the use of other emerging pedagogies; (3) participation in communitary support activities at the school, such as volunteer management, participation in socio-cultural events, service-learning activities, etc. The second phase corresponds to the start-up of the prototype of the "Laboratory of Emerging Pedagogies and Disruptive Practices" (EP-DP), which will be set up as an open web platform for disseminating and communicating the innovations analyzed. The Disruptive Media Learning Lab at Coventry University is an inspiring model for our Laboratory (http://dmll.org.uk/).
Today, the school institution experiences a certain decline, which is characterized by the uncertainty of educative moments and the deep disaffection with student expectations (Corea & Lewkowicz, 2004). A disaffection that sometimes seems incapable of generating attractive, stimulating, challenging, provocative and / or creative pedagogies and learning practices (Alliaud and Antelo, 2009; Acaso, Manzanera and Piscitelli, 2015). This is a question that we show in the Torrijos. Three years ago it was a school with a low motivated student profile, with high rates of dropout and school failure and low demanded despite being in an overcrowded area. But when a new management team came in with disruptive approaches to school practices, this situation changes in the way that different studies on disruptive innovation present it (Christensen, Horn, and Johnson, 2011). We observe that there is a need to rethink and to modify all those restrictions in a connectivist key that understands knowledge as a network (Siemens, 2005), and that uses new formats and skills. In the case of Malaga, we observe how the involvement of students is promoted along with the cooperative commitment to understand learning, the democratization of school practices and the curricular adaptation to the reality, in such a way that their interests occupy an important place in school decisions. These elements represent a transformation in methodologies, didactics and school organization, allowing for multi-sensory and digital forms of relationship within the classroom.
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