10 SES 14 F, Research on Teacher Educators
The professional performance of teachers is currently the subject of constant criticism of society (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005; Cochran-Smith, Feiman-Nemser, McIntyre, & Demers, 2008), which calls into question their training. Studies along these lines are opting to show that there is a direct correlation between poor initial training and teaching work, especially at compulsory education levels.
Initial teacher training has been found to be highly theoretical, with poor connection to professional practice, fragmented curricula and little promotion of innovation and research skills training (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005; Zeichner & Gore, 1990; Zeichner & Tabachnick, 1981). The development of these last types of competences is essential for any professional, but even more so for teachers, since they must have a critical and reflective view of the classroom problems, which they themselves must solve.
Research-innovation is a unitary construct sine qua non to the profile of the effective teacher at all levels and stages of education and not only the university teaching staff -as has been traditionally argued-, but there is still resistance to promote it.
Research-innovation leads to the significant assimilation of contents, skills and attitudes that are to be developed; learning by research implies the need to make knowledge an object at the service of improving the educational reality (López, 2015). This demands its undeniable presence in education at all stages of education.
On the basis of these antecedents, the objective of this study is to investigate whether in the initial training of teachers, in the Spanish context, research-innovation skills are developed. And if this is so, to identify what kind of competencies future teachers acquire. The results have allowed us to design a skills acquisition program that is being implemented with future teachers.
A quantitative research design was carried out using an online survey method to learn the perceptions of future teachers on the acquisition of skills associated with the acquisition of research and innovation skills. The selection of the participants was made by intentional sampling. The simple consists of students from the Faculty of Education of the University of Alicante (Spain), from three Spanish cities: Alicante, Castellón and Valencia, were invited to participate in the study. Of these, 556 students voluntarily accepted to answer the questionnaire; 255 are future Primary Education teachers and 301 students are future Infant Education teachers. Instrument The research used the questionnaire Development of Competences and Skills to Improve Teaching Authority and Coexistence in Classrooms used in previous research (Merma-Molina, Gavilán, & Martínez, 2018). However, in order to confirm the validity of the instrument, a review of expert research was carried out by Cano (2007), Darling-Hammond (2000), Esteve (2004), Cochran-Smith, Feiman-Nemser, McIntyre and Dmers (2008), Ibáñez-Martín (2013), López (2015) and Martín del Pozo et al. (2013). The validation of the content of the questionnaire was carried out by 3 professors, experts from the University of Alicante and 2 external professors specialized in teacher training. Additionally, the reliability of the internal consistency for all its content was carried out, which reached 0.91 of Cronbach's Alfa. The questionnaire has five categories: - Research - Create new content - Develop novel and innovative practices - Inquire outside the classroom - Be self-critical and reflective The variables were evaluated with a Lickert scale with scores between 1 and 5 (never, almost never, sometimes, always and almost always). The students' consent was requested to send them the link where they could answer the questionnaire anonymously; the web address was sent through the virtual campus of the University of Alicante, preserving the anonymity and confidentiality of the information provided by the participants in the study. The participants completed the questionnaires in their free time and at different times. The data were collected during the first four-month period of the 2017-2018 academic year. SPSS software v. 21.0 was used for the statistical analysis of the items of the questionnaire.
Some outstanding findings show that 79.8% of participants state that their initial training promotes reflection, critical capacity, followed by 73.8% who maintain that their professors, at the university, promote the implementation of innovative practices. They also state that teachers encourage the creation of new content (71.95%) against memoristic and repetitive learning. The most scarce activity pointed out by the students participating in the study is the investigation of the contents of the subject outside the classroom; thus, 21.8% of students state that these competences are carried out only on some occasions and 13.1% that they are never carried out. The students especially highlight that they learned to be critical, self-critical and reflective and, although the subjects, following the Framework of the European Higher Education Area, have both face-to-face and non- face-to-face credits, they point out as the poorest activity the investigation of the contents of the subject outside the classroom. Although the findings that research-innovation skills are developed are significant, it is concluded that other skills are still not sufficiently promoted, such as research outside the classroom (12.4% of students state that research is not carried out outside the classroom), the carrying out of innovative practices (8% of students state that practices are not innovative) and the construction of new knowledge (6.4% state that no new knowledge is built). The initial training of future teachers cannot be carried out without reflection, research or innovation. As Zabalza (2004) maintains, it is crucial that teacher training should not be based on the simple accumulation of memorized knowledge, since it requires that the teacher be able to construct and teach how to construct practical and innovative knowledge. In short, teacher training must be in accordance with the challenges posed by today's society, and it is therefore necessary to introduce changes in their training that contribute to the development of collaborative research skills.
Cano, E. (2007). Las competencias de los docentes. En A. López (Coord.), El desarrollo de competencias docentes en la formación del profesorado (pp. 33-60). Madrid: MEC. Cochran-Smith, M.; Feiman-Nemser, S.; McIntyre, D. J., &. Demers K. E (Eds.), (2008). Handbook of research on teacher education: Enduring questions in changing contexts (3ª ed.). New York: Routledge. Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8 , 1. doi:10.14507/epaa.v8n1.2000 Darling-Hammond, L., & Bransford, J. (2005). Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Ibáñez-Martín, J. A. (2013). Ética docente del siglo XXI: nuevos desafíos. Edetania: Estudios y Propuestas Socio-educativas, (43), 17-31. López, E. (2015). Project Based Learning to develop teacher’s profesional competences: an innovation teaching proposal in Didactic of Social Sciences. Didáctica de las Ciencias Experimentales y Sociales, 29, 25-41. Martín del Pozo, R, Fernández-Lozano, P., González-Ballesteros, M., & De Juanas, A. (2013). El dominio de los contenidos escolares: competencia profesional, formación inicial de maestros. Revista de Educación, 360, 363-387. Zabalza, M. (2004). La enseñanza universitaria. Madrid: Narcea. Zeichner, K. M., & Gore, J. M. (1990). Teacher socialization. In W. R. Houston, M. Haberman, & J. Sikula (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 329–348). New York, NY: Macmillan. Zeichner, K. M., & Tabachnick, B. R. (1981). Are the effects of university teacher education ‘washed out’ by school experience? Journal of Teacher Education, 32(3), 7–11. doi:10.1177/002248718103200302
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