23 SES 09 C, Inclusive Education
The emergence of the informational society, based on the active use of information and knowledge as the main source of productivity and economic development in a country (Castells, 1997, UNESCO, 2011; Sancho y Alonso, 2012), has led to great transformations in the functioning and development of educational systems and, in particular, of school establishments. Among these modifications is the demand for the development of new cognitive and emotional skills and abilities, mainly linked to knowledge management, collaboration and self-regulation of learning, and the active use of digital technologies (Cobo, 2016).
In a linked manner, a concern has also arisen regarding the enrichment of the environments where learning takes place, including attention to the pedagogical resources used, the climate or the prevailing environment, the competences and capacities of the trainers, among other factors (Vegas & Umansky, 2005; Cobo & Movarec, 2011).
Since 2005, a set of public policies aimed at promoting the provision of technological resources in schools have begun to proliferate in the world. Most of these were launched with the emergence of the "1x1:one laptop per child " programs, whose objective was to facilitate and expand the possibilities of access to the digital society to a wider segment of the population, especially to the least favored.
Over time, most of these 1x1 initiatives have been cancelled or discontinued, highlighting the following programs: School 2.0 in Spain, the Magalhaes project in Portugal, Canaima in Venezuela, Becta in the UK, OLPC-Peru, Connect Equality in Argentina, Links in Chile and recently @prendeMX in Mexico.
Perhaps the most emblematic and representative cases of these initiatives, which are still in force (with a sustainable perspective over time), are the Public Foundation "Omar Dengo" in Costa Rica, and the Plan Ceibal in Uruguay (Rivera-Vargas, & Cobo, 2018). Both projects have managed to meet their initial objectives, and also assume new challenges, in line with the changes experienced with the emergence of the digital society.
This communication will present the results of an international investigation, which precisely analyses the implementation and impact of a set of digital inclusion policies that have been carried out in different parts of the world during the last decades, with particular emphasis on the problem of its sustainability.
In the framework of the interpretive paradigm, the research on which this proposal is based, seeks to describe a very relevant educational social phenomenon. With this focus, our approach It will be an inductive process, which in the first instance will seek to "explore and describe", and then "generate" a certain theoretical perspective (Lincon & Cuba, 1985). According to the purpose of this research, we have resorted to the study of cases considering that in terms of modality of interactive qualitative research and in the line of McMillan and Schumacher (2005), it will allow a holistic or detailed study of the phenomenon investigated within the context real in which it occurs. We will work from the logic of "Multiple Cases" (Wiersma & Jurs, 2005), with the intention of learning from the evolution of certain significant cases in which it is possible to investigate the implementation and recognize the impact of these initiatives in their own context. At the same time, it has helped us to identify and understand specific situations that have not been analysed so far, and to try to explain the mutual influences of the components and factors of a situation. Regarding the cases, these have been done in 4 countries that implemented digital inclusion programs, with different luck. The study focuses on the experiences of Spain, and Mexico as discontinued public initiatives, and Costa Rica and Uruguay, as sustainable public initiatives. In the selected programs, we have been carried out face-to-face research stays. During these stays, an exhaustive analysis of the qualitative and quantitative secondary data available has been carried out (Cordón, López & Vaquero, 2001). In addition, in-depth interviews will be conducted with representatives of the initiatives and beneficiaries. For the information obtained through the application of instruments with qualitative techniques, a "discourse analysis" will be carried out for each of the observation units consulted. In the first instance, an individual (vertical) analysis was carried out, and in a second instance, the discourses obtained in a global (horizontal) discourse are being articulated (Mcmillan, & Schumacher, 2005).
Until this momento, the four case studies have been carried out, and before starting the general and comparative analysis, we are in a phase of analysis of each of these. In general, we can see that the contributions that each of these digital inclusion programs has left in the schools of each country are recognizable, including the case of Spain and Mexico, considering their unexpected closure. First, improvements in infrastructure and connectivity are recognized. Secondly, the fact that, based on these programs, a more critical and reflective view about the use of digital technologies in education has emerged. However, in a negative dimension, the closure of the programs in Spain and Mexico meant that only a few centers could continue with the innovations and transformations that the program proposed. The rest did not, which has increased the promoting character of social stratification of educational centers Finally, it is possible to affirm that a school without computers and without Internet connectivity is incompatible with current educational needs. However, as already established (Sancho, 2005, Cobo, 2016, Selwyn, 2016) digital technology is not enough. This can have a positive impact on education only if there is a constructive dialogue between teachers, students and their families (Battro, 2010).
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