ERG SES H 03, Migration and Transition in Education
In the UK, there has been a rise of concern related to the transition of some primary school students with limited basic skills required for secondary education (Gorard et al., 2017). As the majority of study results suggest, such children are under the risk of being lagged behind in comparison to their peers (Sainsbury et al. 1998; Galton, Gray & Ruddock, 1999; Reyes et al. 2000). In addition, failing to timely identify those students in need of support further leads them to encounter other serious issues, such as anxiety, depression, and disruptive classroom behavior (Galton, Morrison, & Pell, 2000; Graham & Hill, 2003). As Gorard et al. (2017) noted, the underachievement in primary education, more often, is the precursor of the low academic achievement in the further education levels. It is also crucial to note that the underachievement in the period of transition to the secondary school level presupposes pupils under a vulnerable category and influence on their further higher education and career opportunities (Gorard, Siddiqui, & See 2017).
This paper is deemed to explore the experiences of transition to a secondary school of children in the UK and some influences upon those experiences. The central purpose of this study is to identify the factors affecting a better or worse transition to a secondary school of students from socio-economic disadvantaged backgrounds. This is especially important as a less successful transition often leads to poorer educational outcomes for children, especially for those from backgrounds of poverty and/or socio-economic disadvantage.
Today inclusion in education is widely accepted as a basic human right (EADSNE, 2012). In the literature, inclusive education is used to refer to educating all children regardless of their wide range of abilities, including different kinds of disabilities, as well as a broad range of cultural and socio-economic backgrounds (UNESCO, 1994; Ainscow et al., 2006). As defined in the Index of Inclusion (Booth & Ainscow, 2003, p. 1) “inclusion is about the education for all children and young people”. Inclusive education, in general, is considered to be an umbrella term that covers the concepts and values of human rights, social justice, i.e. equity and equality, as well as quality education for all (Hornby, 2012). The idea of inclusive education has been spread throughout the world and influenced national policies of many countries. In this sense, international organizations are an effective tool in spreading unified ideas and globalizing them (Ball, 1998).
Twenty-seven years ago, Ainscow (1991) emphasized the crucial role of the school environment to be adjusted to the needs of children with special education. That is, instead of focusing on their differences, the school settings and practices should be able to embrace those differences and exclude any means of discrimination and barriers for inclusion. Clark, Dyson, and Milward (1995) described inclusion as “extending the scope of ordinary schools so they can include a greater diversity children” (p. v). In other words, the support that is provided in a school setting and its improvement is one of the crucial practices of fostering inclusive education.
“The successful secondary analyst must be able to use and interpret the data with the knowledge and insights that went into its original collection” (Dale et al. 1988, p. 16). With this in mind, it is crucial to identify the major focus and purpose the primary data is aiming to achieve (Smith, 2008). That is to say, the original research inevitably influences the applications of the secondary data. That is why the original sources of the data, quality of questionnaires, sampling and response rate, data collection and background to the survey are the significant aspects that should not be undermined (Smith, 2008). This study will use data from the British birth cohort studies, which is the multi-purpose longitudinal study that has been tracing multiple measures including family-background, individual and school characteristics, as well as the socio-emotional, cognitive and behavioral developments of the children born in 1958, 1970, and 2000/1. The main focus of this research is 2000/1 cohort: The Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) that has collected various data of approximately 19,000 children born between September 2000 and January 2002 across the UK (Plewis, 2007). The data has been collected throughout several stages as those children grew: aged 9 months, 3 years, 5 years, 7 years, 11 years, 14 years and most recently 17 years (Centre for Longitudinal Studies, 2019). This study will draw on information from the third to the sixths sweeps including such information as personal data or household grid information, cohort member cognitive assessments, cohort member behavioral development and cohort member physical measurement. The study will examine the link between individual influences such as family economic circumstances, pre-transition anxieties, post-transition peer social relationships, family relationships, engagement with secondary school, relationships with teachers, academic self-concept and individual wellbeing; and wider influences, such as the different schooling contexts across Scotland and England/Wales/NI (UK). There will be three regressions models: model 1) family and socio-economic sectors; model 2) background controls and behavioral developments; model 3) wider schooling contexts.
The results of this study are deemed to show the knowledge gap in the processes and mechanisms of the impact of poverty and socioeconomic disadvantage, and of peer and family relationships, on secondary school transitions.
Ainscow, M. (1991). Effective schools for all: an alternative approach to special needs in education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 21 (3), 293-308. Ainscow, M., Booth, T., and Dyson, A. (2006). Improving Schools, Developing Inclusion, London: Routledge. Ainscow, M. (2014). From Special Education to Effective Schools for All: Widening the Agenda. In The SAGE Handbook of Research on Teacher Education. SAGE. Ball S. J. (1998). Big policies/small world: An introduction to international perspectives in education policy. Comparative Education, 34(2), 119-130. Florian, L., and Black‐Hawkins, K. (2011). Exploring inclusive pedagogy. British Educational Research Journal, 37(5), 813-828. Galton, M., J. Gray, and J. Ruddock (1999). The Impact of School Transitions and Transfers on Pupil Progress and Attainment. DfEE Research Report No. 131. Norwich: HM’s Stationery Office Graham, C., and M. Hill. (2003). Negotiating the Transition to Secondary School: SCRE Spotlight. Edinburgh: Scottish Council of Research in Education. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED482301.pdf. Gorard, S., Siddiqui, N., and See, B.H. (2017). What works and what fails? Evidence from seven popular literacy 'catch-up' schemes for the transition to secondary school in England. Research Papers in Education, 32 (5), 626-648. Hornby, G. (2012). Inclusive Education for Children with Special Education Needs: A Critique of Policy and Practice in New Zealand. Journal of International and Comparative Education, 1(1). Muijs, D. (2011). Doing quantitative research in education with SPSS. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. OECD, (2007). Students with Disabilities, Learning Difficulties and Disadvantages. Policies, Statistics and Indicators. OECD. ISBN 978-92-64-027626. Reyes, O., K. Gillock, K. Kobus, and B. Sanchez. (2000). A Longitudinal Examination of the Transition into Senior High School for Adolescents from Urban, Low-income Status, and Predominantly Minority Backgrounds. American Journal of Community Psychology 28 (4), 519–544. Sainsbury, M., C. Whetton, M. Keith, and I. Schagen. (1998). Fallback in Attainment on Transfer at Age 11: Evidence from the Summer Literacy Schools Evaluation. Educational Research 40 (1), 73–81. See, B. H., and S. Gorard. (2014). Improving Literacy in the Transition Period: A Review of the Existing Evidence on What Works. British Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Sciences 4 (6), 739–754. Taylor, S. J. and Bogdan, R. (1998) Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
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Network 10. Teacher Education Research
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Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
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Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
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Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
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Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
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