10 SES 12 E, Research on Teacher Induction and Early Career Teachers
The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century were characterized by two events that changed the teaching profession in most Western countries. First, the widespread professionalization of teacher education (Altet, 1994; Bourdoncle, 1991; Hoyle, 1983; Tardif & Borges, 2009), in reference to the reflective practitioner model (Schön, 1987). Second, the profession has entered a vocation crisis that has resulted in a political will to attract and retain new teachers (Müller, Alliata, & Benninghoff, 2009; OECD, 2005). However, these events were a result of specific socio-historical trajectories in each national context.
In the Swiss context, characterized by a decentralization of teacher training and employment, tertiarization consisted above all in shifting from cantonal logic to a more national and shared definition of the profession (Denzler, 2014; Noverraz, 2008). This included ensuring that the former training institutions initially designed for local labour sub-markets were harmonised at a federal level, in accordance with inter-cantonal agreements on the recognition of diplomas, even though the authority remained at the cantonal level. This tertiarization was also part of the European framework of the Bologna agreements. As far as recruitment is concerned, it remains independent of these new universities of teacher education. Access to employment for teachers follows the rules of supply and demand, between graduates and recruiting schools. Graduates have always had to apply for their job, addressing their applications to schools. These later were trusted by the cantonal authority to hire the necessary labour force. Thus, one of the expected effects of the transition to Universities of Teacher Education was a greater mobility for holders of teaching diplomas (Noverraz, 2008). According to the law of supply and demand, graduates would move more in search of the best jobs throughout the country, or even internationally, with the recognition of their diplomas under the Bologna agreements (Akkari & Broyon, 2008).
Based on this context, we have sought to better understand the effects of these reforms in the French-speaking Swiss context. We were particularly interested in the different recruitment logics at work in the quasi-market (Greenaway, 1991) for teacher employment. Is there indeed labour mobility and is the recruitment facilitated by the diversity of candidates? In other words, to what extent do the professionalization of teacher education influence the mobility of the teaching workforce?
Our analysis consists of a statistical processing of data from a survey of 3200 teachers who graduated from the Universities of teacher education in French-speaking Switzerland between 2005 and 2017. The inter-institutional survey from which these data are drawn address an online questionnaire to graduates of teacher training courses, one year and three years after obtaining their diploma. The objective of the survey is to describe the evolution of the different professional situations, to highlight the strategies put in place to find a job and to evaluate the sense of integration experienced by graduates, while emphisizing the links between these professional situations and the teacher training received. The data used were extracted from two separate questionnaires. The first questionnaire was used until 2015. The most recent respondents were those who graduated in 2013. The second questionnaire corresponds to a redesign of the first one, in order to include new institutions in the survey. It has been in use since 2015 and 2014 graduates were the first to respond. The overall response rate is between 35 and 40% for graduates who respond one year after their training, and between 20 and 30% at the two-year follow-up. In our analysis, we use three sub-samples: graduates who responded one year after completing their teacher education program; graduates who responded three years after graduation; and those who responded to both solicitations ("longitudinal" subsample). The distinction between these three sub-samples is used to verify the robustness of each analysis, on the one hand, and to make matched and unpaired comparisons of the evolution of professional situations, on the other hand. We use descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate models to a better understanding of access to teacher employment.
We show in several steps that recruitment strategies continue to meet the local / cantonal needs at the schools' level: First, we show that the mobility observed mainly concerns candidates for teacher training, while employment is more in line with the social network logic in which candidates are located (Girinshuti, 2019). Although the recruitment is regulated at the schools’ level for all graduates, we nevertheless show that there is a segmentation logic (Bucher & Strauss, 1961). Teaching employment thus does not pose the same access issues depending on whether it is teaching at the primary level, where there is a high rate of part-time employment and a high demand for labour, or teaching at the upper-secondary level, where the labour market is beginning to be saturated, particularly when teaching certain academic disciplines. In accordance with this increasing segmentation, we end by highlighting the profiles of teachers by levels. In particular, we show a gender effect where the more saturated the sub-market, the more difficult it is for women to access a job that matches their teacher training.
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