10 SES 17 C, Research on Values, Beliefs & Understandings in Teacher Education
As agents for the future who offer frames for orientation to young people teacher have a share in configuring prospective conditions for the societal construction and its cultural foundation. This societal function of teachers‘ work follows perspectives of school theory and is described as the enculturation of young people (Fend 2008). Enculturation is realized by exposing young people to explicit as well as to implicit knowledge of cultural objectivations, whether they are connected with material objects or immaterial issues. The process of enculturation also concerns social embedded rules as cultural habbits. Cultural transmission is involved in the teachers´ professional practices as underlying dimension and can be seen as important clue for the intergenerational integration of people. Nearly in opposit to this considerations deriving from school theory educational and didactic theories emphasize the process of individualization (Kepser/Abraham 2016). In this regard the teachers‘ work is framed as support for the process of creating relations between the subject, the objectivations and the world. For this aim their work is understood as offer for the individual to get involved as a singular person within the societal context. Though the balance between these apparently conflicting goals has been solved during history in different ways as different societies and their doxa empasize the individuum or the collective, always both dimensions are involved. They constitute one fundamental antinomy of educational and pedagogical work in modern times (Helsper 1999).
For the present these challenges for teachers professionalism, which resulted from the antinomic structure even intensify in face of processes as globalization (Giddens 1991, Beck 1992) and as singularization of the individuum (Reckwitz 2018), especially concerning cultural aspects. Cultural diversifcation as cultural pluralization and hybridization (Bhabha 1994/2010) leads to phenomenons which are characterized as manifestation of glocalization (Robertson 1992). By this orientiation within in the world as individuum and as participant of society competencies of dealing with complexity are ineluctable. To rise within a society, which is projected as cultural homogenous in its community isn’t sufficent any more at all. Theoretical foundations of cultural studies implemented a broader understanding of cultural and its structure which derrive from the entanglement of different element. Cultural meanings vary and change as Geertz summarized by describing culture as "a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about and attitudes toward life." (Geertz 1973, pp. 89). To be involved in the world, young people have to learn to read multiplied ways of cultural meaning as to express themselve in different ways for partizipating as active memebers in society.
Starting from this point we ask, how teacher provide cultural dimensions within their teaching. Based on theories which emphasize the implicit knowledge and its cultural dimension (Bourdieu 1990) the conditions for the transmitting process of cultural framed knowledge constitue in the focus of two studies. While one concentrates o the understanding of culture of teachers teaching humanities the second study aims at orientations which guide cultural teaching in general at the side of teacher students.
Existing studies on teachers’ epistemological beliefs have particularly focused on those teaching mathematics or a natural science subject (Blömeke 2014; Depaepe, Corte, & Verschaffel 2016; Felbrich, Müller & Blömeke 2008). To date, there has been little research that sheds light on the belief system underlying teachers in humanities, and even less teacher students and their habitual knowledge on culture. On the other hand the relevance of beliefs and orientations is highlighted by studies showing their importance for metacognitive abilities, self-regulation, volitional readiness and argumentation (Bromme 2005; Dunekacke, Jenßen, Eilerts, & Blömeke, 2016; cf. Hofer & Bendixen, 2012).
To find out which implicit orientations (trainee) teachers have in view of transcultural changes and the hybridization of cultural manifestations, a qualitative-reconstructive research design was chosen. The aim of both studies is to reconstruct the (trainee) teachers´ implicit orientations. Data for both studies were collected through group discussion (Bohnsack 2004) and analysed using the documentary method (Bohnsack 2010). Within the methodological background of the methodological approach two forms of knowledge are differentiated. The explicit knowledge is generalizing and theoretical. It contains evaluative, normative statements about the (trainee) teachers´ self-image. This knowledge can be explicated by individuals. The implicit, conjunctive knowledge is experience-based and atheoretical. It influences the (trainee) teachers' habitualized actions. The implicit knowledge is not accessible to the reflection of individuals. This distinction of knowledge enables to analyse and reconstruct (trainee) teachers´ collective and conjunctive forms of knowledge concering transcultural changes and the hybridization of cultural manifestations, by the reason of the fact that their collective, implicit and conjunctive knowledge was actualized in the situation of a group discussion. The (trainee) teachers´ narrative allow to reconstruct the implicit knowledge or orientations by the documentary method. The sample of the study “Cultural tradition in the humanities subjects” consists of 19 group discussion with 78 teachers. 28 group discussions with 113 participants were included in the sampling of the second study “Culture-Related Professional Orientations of Student Teachers”. The data of both studies were based on theoretical sampling method (Glaser & Strauss 1967). For the first study not only the teachers’ articulated views on the genesis and acquisition of cultural knowledge in the humanities at the explicit knowledge level are investigated; in the same time it is reconstructed on the implicit, cultural knowledge level what is documented in the teachers' narrative about epistemological practices. Such implicit knowledge underlies the orientation for particular habitualized practices. Within the second study a slightly different interest shows at the level of explicit knowledge the aspects and dimensions of culture, which are meaningful for teacher students. At the implicit level the reconstructed orientations show by which orientations their habbits and practices in culture and cultural teaching are guided. By abductive proceedings and comparisons on different levels and finally with several tertia comparationis the reconstructed findings are condensed and generalized to different types of epistemological understandings and orientations in the field of doing culture for both studies. They result in a typology built up by ideal-types.
The results of the first study reveal that pupils are constantly called upon to take on pre-existing highly cultural objectivations. Multi-, inter-, trans-, socio- or subcultural phenomena, which refer to immaterial as well as material cultural practices, do not appear to orient the epistemological beliefs of the teachers of subjects in the humanities. These results can be understood as an expression of educational inequality, because teachers exclude pupils with their own cultural expressions from the teaching discourse. The talk represents the contribution to research into epistemological beliefs, providing impulses for the training and further cultural education of teachers. The second study shows that the orientations are focused on dealing with variety and change. Different types are shaped by an understanding of culture as ongoing process, performed by a self in agency. Open spaces for reflection hold a key role for transmitting culture within the frame of this orientation. Complex forms of multiplicity in divers areas as belonging and learning aren’t avoided but offer stimuli for adjustment or activity. A different type is focused on regarding the self within its antecedent limits. Teaching is guided by norms to protect traditions. Differences, especially in an essential mode, are fundamental for this type of orientation. These results indicate the need for new spaces of reflexivity in teacher education in which the habitual cultural positions are irritated and multiplicity is taken into consideration.
Beck, U. (1992). Risk Society. Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage Publications. Bhabha, H. K. (1994/2010). Location of culture. London: Routledge. Blömeke, S. (2014). Framing the Enterprise: Benefits and Challenges of International Studies on Teacher Knowledge and Teacher Beliefs - Modeling Missing Links. In S. Blömeke, F.-F. Hsieh, G. Kaiser, & W. H. Schmidt (Eds.), International Perspectives on Teacher Knowledge, Beliefs and Opportunities to Learn: TEDS-M Results (pp. 3–17). Dordrecht, Heidelberg, New York, London: Springer. Bohnsack, R. (2010). Documentary Method and Group Discussions. In R. Bohnsack, N. Pfaff, & W. Weller (Eds.), Qualitative analysis and documentary method in international educational research (pp. 99–124). Opladen, Farmington Hills: Barbara Budrich. Bourdieu, P. ; Passeron, J.-C. (1990). Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture (Theory, Culture and Society Series) London: Sage. Bromme, R. (2005). Thinking and Knowing about knowledge: A Plea for and Critical Remarks on Psychological Research Programs on Epistemological Beliefs. In M. H. G. Hoffmann, J. Lenhard, & F. Seeger (Eds.), Activity and Sign: Grounding Mathematics Education (pp. 191–201). New York: Springer. Depaepe, F., Corte, E. de, & Verschaffel, L. (2016). Mathematical Epistemological Beliefs. In J. A. Greene, W. A. Sandoval, & I. Bråten (Eds.), Handbook of Epistemic Cognition (pp. 147–164). New York, London: Routledge. Dunekacke, S., Jenßen, L., Eilerts, K., & Blömeke, S. (2016). Epistemological beliefs of prospective preschool teachers and their relation to knowledge, perception, and planning abilities in the field of mathematics: a process model. ZDM: Mathematics Education, 48, 125–137. Felbrich, A., Müller, C., & Blömeke, S. (2008). Epistemological beliefs concerning the nature of mathematics among teacher educators and teacher education students in mathematics. ZDM: Mathematics Education, 40, 763–776. Fend, H. (2008). Neue Theorie der Schule. Einführung in das Verstehen von Bildungssystemen (2nd ed.). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. Geertz, C. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books. Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and Self-Identity. Self and society in the late Modern Age. Cambridge: Polity Presse. Hofer, B. K., & Bendixen, L. D. (2012). Personal Epistemology: Theory, Research, and Future Directions. In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, & T. C. Urdan (Eds.), APA Educational Psychology Handbook: Theories, Constructs, and Critical Issues (Vol. 1, pp. 227–256). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. Reckwitz, A. (2018). Die Gesellschaft der Singularitäten. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Robertson R (1992). Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture. London: Sage.
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