22 SES 11 C, Teaching and Learning: Teacher Training
INTRODUCTION: The role of the teacher is of special importance in the education of the 21st century. The social changes that are being experienced now have a direct impact on the teachers' task. These teachers have new professional demands due to the introduction of technologies in the classrooms, the increase in the ratio of students, interculturality, the requirement of mastery of non-native languages, among other aspects.
Consequently, the training of future teachers is of vital importance, since they have to adapt to the new changes that are taking place in society. Moreover, their future performance will fall on the students' learning, so their training will take an important role. Several authors have focused their attention on the two ways to train future teachers through the development of teaching competences: on the one hand, the work environment through continuous training and, on the other, the academic university environment.
In this paper we will focus on initial training, a key stage for future teachers to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to become a good teacher. For this, these future teacher students have to develop a series of teaching competences during their university education.
It is convenient to stop at the definition of competence, a concept that has been confusing since its appearance. Among all the contributions highlighted by Perrenaud (2004, p.11), who defines competence as the ability to mobilize various cognitive resources to deal with a type of situation. Regarding the classification of teaching competences, there are three major dimensions (Fernández et al., 2016, Valdivieso, Martín y Martín-Antón, 2013; Ramón, Redondo, Gundín y Fernández, 2015):
- Instrumental competences: are those related to the knowledge domain of the profession and general knowledge, information management, planning, communication skills, decision making and educational evaluation.
- Interpersonal skills: are those related to social relationships, cooperation, teamwork, feelings and emotions.
- Systemic competences: those that allow teachers to adapt to new educational situations and know how to act in the face of new changes.
In-service teachers state that they have not acquired these skills during their initial training, especially those who teach in the primary education stage. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the acquisition of instrumental competencies self-perceived by future teachers of primary education and their satisfaction during their years of university education.
METHOD. This research is framed within non-experimental studies. It is an ex-post-facto type study and framed within the quantitative methodology. Through a system of indicators, sub-dimensions and indicators, an instrument composed of 41 items was elaborated. The sample of the study is composed by 247 students who study the last year of Bachelor's Degree in Primary Education.
The results of the descriptive studies show a medium-low level in the self-perception of the students on their acquisition of the Instrumental Competences during the degree and in the Satisfaction with the training received in the university.
In the Instrumental Competencies dimension, future teachers self-perceive with a medium-low level in linguistic competences and in the domain of the subject and results with low or very low levels in methodological aspects and in use of resources. In the dimension of satisfaction, future teachers feel little satisfied with the teaching system and with the training received throughout the degree.
The differential studies show that the future students who have class in the afternoon, those who attend more time to the classes and those who have pending subjects self-perceive with higher levels of development of teaching competences. The cluster analysis differentiated three profiles of students: the first with medium levels, the second with medium-low levels and the third with low or very low levels.
METHODOLOGY: This research is of a quantitative nature. A non-experimental design is used, in particular, it is an ex-post-facto type study. SAMPLE: A sample of 247 students studying the last year of the Bachelor's Degree in Primary Education in Spain has been collected. The type of sampling is incidental. Data have been collected regarding their age, sex, class shift, specialty and other data related to work, language studies and subjects of the university. The average age of the sample is 22 years, most of them are women, most of the students attend the group in the morning, almost all of them say they attend most classes, most have passed all the subjects, a large percentage do not have an official language certificate, many of them make the university compatible with a job and almost all of them have completed their degree with a specialty. INSTRUMENT: To know the level of acquisition of instrumental competencies self-perceived by future teachers and their satisfaction with the university degree, an ad hoc instrument composed of 41 items has been developed. The future teacher students had to answer according to a Likert scale of 0 to 4. This questionnaire was developed from a system of dimensions, sub-dimensions and indicators that was objectively raised from the specialized literature. PROCEDURE: The questionnaire was applied in the months of January and February of 2018 in the ordinary classrooms of future teachers. With the prior approval of the university professors, the instrument was applied ensuring the anonymity of the participants. After collecting the questionnaires, the formscanner application was used to obtain the database and proceed to data analysis. ANALYSIS: It was used in SPSS software in version 24 to carry out the data analysis. First, descriptive studies of the items were carried out. The second analysis consisted of differential studies through one-way ANOVA. In this analysis, eta2 was also calculated to calculate the effect size. The values contributed by Pardo and Ruíz (2005) were considered, considering large effect sizes if the obtained value is higher than 0.14, medium effect sizes to those that are around 0.06 and small effect sizes those lower or equal values to 0.01. Finally, a cluster analysis was carried out in order to identify the different profiles of students according to their self-perception levels. In this analysis, the procedure of average k was used.
The following conclusions are established on the teaching competences of the future teachers of primary education. The subjects self-perceive with medium-low levels in the two dimensions of this study: instrumental competences and satisfaction. Specifically, the following can be highlighted: students self-perceive with a medium level in the domain of the subjects, development of work dynamics, a poor preparation in aspects related to planning, assessment of the needs of students, use of technological resources and a little improvement in linguistic competences. Regarding the Satisfaction dimension, students do not feel satisfied with the teacher training they receive at the university, especially with the methodologies and evaluations used by their teachers. In this sense, several authors suggest using more active and participatory methodologies that encourage meaningful learning on the part of their students. Others suggest giving more importance to the internship period, since it is a period in which students can develop their teaching skills. The shortcomings contemplated in this study lead to rethink about the initial training of future teachers. It should be noted that this study includes items that evaluate the acquisition of teaching skills and satisfaction in a subjective manner. However, low levels of self-perception reveal that the subjects did not tend to complacency. As a prospective, it is proposed to carry out studies that evaluate the acquisition of teaching competences through objective tests, such as performance tests or tests. On the other hand, it seems necessary to expand the sample size with students from universities in other countries in order to obtain more generalized results. First of all, it is important to highlight the importance of teaching in today's society, which leads to rethink the initial training received by future teachers in order to adapt their performance to the changes of today's society.
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