01 SES 16 A, Governance, Alignment and Cultural Differences
The emergence of recent migration has resulted in the coexistence of communities with different cultural structures. Countries want to integrate these multicultural structures through education systems. In Turkey education about multiculturalism is given as an elective subject in teacher training undergraduate programs (YÖK, 2018). In many universities students who cannot take these elective courses start to work in schools without having knowledge about multicultural communities. In contrast, teachers in the European Union countries receive culturally responsive training (Donlevy, Mejerkord, & Rajania, 2016). In this case, teachers carry out a culturally responsive class structuring depending on their professional development processes. This situation causes differences between classes and teachers. The relevant literature indicates that teachers can be free of prejudices, stereotypes and filters through critical and participatory approaches (Solarczyk-Szwec, 2009).
This is a very difficult situation for teachers trying to create a culturally responsive classroom environment through professional development processes. According to OECD (2019) reports, the number of foreign students in Turkey are above the OECD average and many European Union countries. Although access to education is so high, teachers are inadequate in the scope of inclusive education (ERG, 2016). In UNESCO (2019) report Turkey is quite on the lower level at the point of meeting the immigrants’ needs, too.
According to the pedagogical dimension which is among the dimensions of classroom management; teachers should make use of cultural differences to develop student skills and to make students have a wider perspective (Brooks & Brooks, 2018). For this to happen, teachers are expected to act within the scope of specific educational policies. At this point, the European Union points out that teachers manage cultural diversity in their classes in the context of educational policies and develop competencies (Faas, Hajisoteriou, & Angelides, 2014). Teachers working with more inclusive ways through professional development processes will contribute to the management of schools with an inclusive model.
In this context, learning how teachers behave in their classrooms can be effective in determining the professional development programs that can be offered to teachers as well as in determining educational policies. Thus, when students who are educated with universal values are introduced to society, they will contribute to the rise of society with a perspective that respects the differences, sees differences as wealth, turns diversity into opportunities, and attaches importance to human values.
The progress of cultural interaction within the scope of universal values also depends on the culturally responsive education that countries carry out within themselves. In this context, culturally responsive classroom management of teachers will also contribute to the cultural interaction between countries. The European Comission (2017) report, which shows that foreign nationals use different countries neighboring the European Union as a transition country and that these asylum seekers may pose a security problem, also draws attention to immigrants.
Turkey’s being a neighbouring country of the European Union and immigrants’ desire to use Turkey as the transition country shows the importance of the immigrant students’ participating in culturally responsive education process. In this context, with the thought that in Turkey the education policies of teachers who have a significant number of foreign students in their classrooms are inadequate, teachers’ behaviours towards the students with cultural differences in their classrooms and having no knowledge of how teachers develop their own professional development process about this situation forms the problem statement of the research . Having no knowledge of how immigrant students using Turkey as transition before passing European Union countries go through an education process is important for the European Union countries.
In this research, it will be tried to reveal the teachers' thoughts about how they perform behaviors such as understanding immigrant students, revealing their real identity and telling lifestyles in classrooms in schools with cultural differences. The study was created in the phenomenological design of qualitative research methods since it will be studied deeply on culturally responsive class structuring. Phenomenology pattern focuses on cases that we are aware of but we do not have in-depth and detailed understanding (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2005; Robson, 2011). In this study, it was focused on teachers' views about culturally responsive class-building. Data related to this fact will be realized through interviews using pre-structured closed-ended questionnaires. In structured interview technique, it is possible to act with the flexibility to ask additional questions, provided that adhering the interview form that is prepared in advance (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2005; Robson, 2011; Creswell, 2013). Within the scope of research, 25 teachers working in official secondary schools and having students with cultural differences in their classrooms in Turkey will be met with and meeting records will be used as a data source. Criteria sampling method will be used in the selection of teachers. Criterion sampling is to work with people who meet a set of predefined criteria. The criterion can be established by the researcher (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2005; Robson, 2011; Creswell, 2013). The criterion to be used within the scope of the research is the presence of foreign students in the lesson of the teacher. The data obtained as a result of the interviews will be analyzed with descriptive analysis method. The analysis of the codes by the two researchers during the analysis and the comparison of the results and the arrangement of the questions with the expert opinion before the application will be effective in making it a valid and reliable research. The data obtained are summarized and interpreted according to previously determined themes. Descriptive analysis is supported by direct quotations in order to present the views of the interviewees in a striking manner (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2005; Robson, 2011; Creswell, 2013).
It will be determined that how teachers behave towards differences due to the presence of foreign students in the classes in which they apply the educational processes. How they manage their own professional development processes for a culturally responsive class structuring, understanding foreign students, revealing their real identity, and explaining their lifestyles throughout the classroom will be determined. A culturally responsive class environment and studies to educate students with universal values will be demonstrated. It will be tried to compare the teachers’ expectations from other people’s behaviour towards their own children and the teachers’ behaviour towards their students. When the obtained data were interpreted teachers to hear and cultural values in Turkey configuration class limited professional development processes and how they are used, the interaction of foreign students with students in class and will be obtained about how they provide the integration of foreign students. This results will contribute to the emergence of culturally responsive classroom management models of Turkey by comparing the practices in Europe Union and OECD countries.
Brooks, M. C., & Brooks, J. S. (2018). Culturally (ir)relevant school leadership: Ethno-religious conflict and school administration in the Philippines. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 1-24. doi:10.1080/13603124.2018.1503819 Creswell J. W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry &Research Design Choosing Among Five Approaches. London: SAGE Publications Donlevy, V., Mejerkord, A., & Rajania, A. (2016). Study on the Diversity within the Teaching Profession with Particular Focus on Migrant and/or Minority Background. Publications Office of the European Union: Luxembourg. http://publications.europa.eu/resource/cellar/9f27c61d-2ba9-11e6-b616-01aa75ed71a1.0001.01/DOC_1 adresinden alındı ERG. (2016). Kapsayıcı Eğitim: Okul Pratikleri, Öğretmen İhtiyaçları. İstanbul: İmak Ofset Basım Yayın San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti. European Comission. (2017, Mart 1). White Paper On The Future Of Europe. Aralık 14, 2019 tarihinde European Comission: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/sites/beta-political/files/white_paper_on_the_future_of_europe_en.pdf adresinden alındı Faas, D., Hajisoteriou, C., & Angelides, P. (2014). Intercultural education in Europe: Policies, practices and trends. British Educational Research Journal, 40(2), 300-318. doi:10.1002/berj.3080 OECD. (2019). Education at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing. Robson C. (2011). Real World Research. United Kingdom: John Willey & Sons LTD. Solarczyk-Szwec, H. (2009). Teaching And Learning In Different Cultures An adult education perspectives. (E. Czerka, & M. Mechlińska-Pauli, Dü) Gdańsk: Gdańsk Higher School of Humanities Press. UNESCO. (2019). Migration, displacement and education. Paris: UNESCO Publishing. Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2005). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri. Ankara: Sözkesen Matbaacılık. YÖK. (2018, Mayıs 30). YÖK Öğretmen Yetiştirme Lisans Programları. Kasım 5, 2019 tarihinde Yüksek Öğretim Kurulu: https://www.yok.gov.tr/kurumsal/idari-birimler/egitim-ogretim-dairesi/yeni-ogretmen-yetistirme-lisans-programlari adresinden alındı
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