22 SES 14 B, Paper Session
From past to present time, research showed that learners can have more relevant, less fragmented, and more stimulating experiences thanks to interdisciplinary or integrated curriculum (Frykholm & Glasson, 2005; Furner & Kumar, 2007; Jacobs, 1989; Koirala & Bowman, 2003). The ‘separate subject approach’ to knowledge and skills in schools can cause that students have difficulty in solving problems because they do not grasp the context in which the problems are embedded (Frykholm & Glasson, 2005). Interdisciplinary or integrated approaches prepare students as well-qualified for both daily and professional life by improving their different skills like critical thinking, problem solving, communication and collaboration etc. Since it is considered that there are many different benefits of using interdisciplinary or integrated education, STEM education (based on the integration of the science, technology, engineering and mathematics disciplines) has been discussed a lot in the recent times. The present century requires that individuals have 21st century skills for the adaptation to the developments all over the world.The STEM experiences provide for strengthening 21st century career and technical skills (Beers, 2011; U.S. Department of Education, Office of Innovation and Improvement, 2016). At this point, STEM education has gained more critical and important role in this age. 21st century skills refer to a set of abilities that people need to develop in order to succeed in the information and technology age. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2009) listed the 21st century skills as three types: ‘Information, Media and Technology Skills’, ‘Life and Career Skills’ and ‘Learning and Innovation Skills’ (OECD, 2008). Critical thinking is one of 21st century skills under the ‘Learning and Innovation Skills’ type and defined as “thinking that has a purpose (proving a point, interpreting what something means, solving a problem)” (Facione, 2015, p. 4). In order to succeed about solving problems and making decisions by forming reasonable judgments, critical thinking skills are required in both daily and professional life. According to Volmert et al. (2013, p. 14), critical thinking skills are “vital for learning subjects, carrying out everyday activities, securing and succeeding in a job and participating in and contributing to civic life”. STEM education develops higher level critical thinking skills through an interdisciplinary approach (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Innovation and Improvement, 2016; Volmert et al., 2013). Since the STEM Education includes more problem- and inquiry-based learning, students have the opportunities to build valuable skills in problem-solving and critical thinking. While making STEM practices, it is focused on solving the real-life problems by using critical thinking skills. Therefore, it is especially focused on critical thinking dispositions in this research and it is aimed to contribute to the current literature by using STEM Education to develop pre-service science teachers’ (PSTs’) critical thinking dispositions. In this manner, the research question of current research: Is there a statistically significant effect of STEM education on pre-service science teachers’ (PSTs’) critical thinking dispositions?
This research was designed as a single-group pre- and post-test model. In this model, a single group is measured or observed not only after exposure to some sort of process but also it is also measured or observed previously (Fraenkel, Wallen & Hyun, 2012). In this direction, the current research was carried out with 20 female PSTs who studied at a public university in Turkey during "STEM education" course. At the beginning of course, “California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI)”, developed by Facione, Facione and Giancarlo (1998), was applied to PSTs as a pre-test to determine their critical thinking dispositions. In the 1st week, general information about definition of STEM education, its history and importance were given by instructor. STEM Practices started as from 2nd week. The practice process was conducted in the context of "Mechanic and Static" subject. During 4 weeks, PSTs made different STEM practices collaboratively in groups consisting of 5 students by using their science, technology, engineering and mathematics knowledge and skills. They followed the 9 steps of engineering design process (1.identifying need or problem, 2. research need or problem, 3. developing possible solutions, 4. selecting best possible solution, 5. constructing a prototype, 6. testing and evaluating solution, 7. communicating the solution, 8. redesigning and 9. completing decision) (Hynes et al., 2011). During STEM practices, PSTs considered on how they can make these practices and discussed logical reasoning of the prototypes that they constructed with their group mates. In the 2nd week, PSTs tried to construct space vehicle which able to descend on Mars planet without being damaged by using different materials pipette, plastic bag, string, band and paper. In the 3rd week, PSTs made STEM practice by constructing ‘Spacecraft Milo’. This spacecraft should be capable of moving on inclined surface of planets’ land without falling from surface, having a sensor to perceive foreign objects in front of it, and exploring on planets. In the 4th week, PSTs constructed the prototypes of earthquake resistant building by testing the effect of balanced and unbalanced forces on objects’ movements. In the 5th week, teacher candidates made STEM practice by designing a swing bridge prototype. After 5 weeks, “California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI)” was applied to PSTs as a post-test this time. In data analysis, since the difference scores of pre- and post-test scores showed normal distribution, a paired-samples t-test was used to compare PSTs’ critical thinking dispositions.
In present research, the effect of STEM Education on PSTs’ critical thinking dispositions were examined. Results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-test scores in favor of both PSTs’ post total test scores (t (19) = -6.634, p<.05) and post sub-dimensions test scores: Analyticity (t (19) = -2.527, p<.05), Open-mindedness (t (19) = -3.329, p<.05), Inquisitiveness (t (19) = -2.894, p<.05), Self-confidence (t (19) = -2.339, p<.05), Truth-seeking (t (19) = -2.471, p<.05), and Systematicity (t (19) = -3.871, p<.05). In other words, PSTs’ critical thinking dispositions improved with STEM practices. Similar to results of current study, Soros et al. (2018) in their research found that 10th grade students’ post-test scores about critical thinking were higher than their pre-test scores after using STEM Education plan. NSTA (2018) stated that as an important component of 21st century, it is given to priority to the critical thinking skills in recent years because both educators and employers has become conscious about the importance of critical thinking rather than memorization. In today’s world, acquiring knowledge or skills is not only expected outcome of science education. Individuals should be able to put their knowledge or skills into practice and integrate them with daily or professional life. This can happen with the promoting of critical thinking. However, promoting individuals’ critical thinking skills are not easy task to achieve. STEM Education develops critical thinking skills by giving opportunity to students for tackling real-world problems through hands-on activities (NSTA, 2018). Therefore,the current research is important in terms of presenting a STEM-based approach to develop critical thinking dispositions of PSTs, future science teachers having a crucial responsibility for enhancing their students’ different skills including critical thinking.
Beers, S.Z. (2011). 21st century skills: Preparing students for their future. Diakses Dari. Retrieved from https://cosee.umaine.edu/files/coseeos/21st_century_skills.pdf Facione, P.A., (2015). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. Insight assessment. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Peter_Facione/publication/251303244_Critical_Thinking_What_It_Is_and_Why_It_Counts/links/5849b49608aed5252bcbe531/Critical-Thinking-What-It-Is-and-Why-It-Counts.pdf Facione, P., A., Facione, N., C., & Giancarlo, C., A., F. (1998). The California critical thinking disposition inventory. California: Academic Press. Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Frykholm, J., & Glasson, G. (2005). Connecting science and mathematics instruction:Pedagogical context knowledge for teachers. School Science and Mathematics,105 (3), 127-141. Furner, J., & Kumar, D. (2007). The mathematics and science integration argument: a stand for teacher education. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology, 3(3), 185–189. Hynes, M., Portsmore, M., Dare, E., Milto, E., Rogers, C., Hammer, D., & Carberry, A. (2011). Infusing engineering design into high school STEM courses. Available online at: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED537364.pdf Koirala, H. P., & Bowman, J. K. (2003). Preparing middle level preservice teachers tointegrate mathematics and science: Problems and possibilities. School Science and Mathematics, 145(10), 145-154. NSTA (2018). Developing Critical Thinking Skills Through STEM. Retrieved from http://ngssblog.nsta.org/2018/11/29/developing-critical-thinking-skills-through-stem/ OECD (2008). 21st Century Skills: How can you prepare students for the new Global Economy? Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/site/educeri21st/40756908.pdf Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2009). Framework for 21st century learning. Tucson, AZ: Author. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/P21_Framework.pdf Soros, P., Ponkham, K. & Ekkapim, S. (2018). The results of STEM education methods for enhancing critical thinking and problem solving skill in physics the 10th grade level. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1923, 030045. Available online at: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5019536 Jacobs, H. (1989). Interdisciplinary curriculum: Design and implementation. AlexandriaVirginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Innovation and Improvement. (2016). STEM 2026: A Vision for Innovation in STEM Education. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www.air.org/system/files/downloads/report/STEM-2026-Vision-for-Innovation-September-2016.pdf Volmert, A., Baran, M., Kendall-Taylor, N., & O’Neil, M. (2013). “You have to have the basics down really well”: Mapping the gaps between expert and public understanding of STEM learning. Washington, DC: FrameWorks Institute. Retrieved from http://www.frameworksinstitute.org/assets/files/PDF_STEM/STEMMTG10-18-13_proofedandformatted.pdf
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
The programme is updated regularly (each day in the morning)
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.