18 SES 03 A, Professional Learning in Physical Education and Sport Coaching
Physical education (PE) teachers are often convinced that game-centered approaches, such as Teaching Games for Understanding, have high potential for PE compared to traditional skill-based approaches (Harvey & Jarrett, 2014). At the same time, however, teachers often find it difficult to teach in terms of game-centered approaches due to a lack of knowledge and experience, and, consequently, skill-based approaches still dominate PE (Díaz-Cueto, Hernández-Álvarez, & Castejón, 2010). To counteract this, it is assumed that prospective PE teachers should reflect on more teaching examples illustrating game-centered approaches (Howarth, 2010). Teaching examples illustrate realistic interactions between PE teachers and their students (e.g., via text). However, it is unclear to what extent learning environments that include such examples promote professional knowledge more than learning environments that do not include such examples. In teacher education, moreover, the question is increasingly being raised to what extent promotion is better achieved through video- or text-based teaching examples (Syring et al., 2015). While it can be assumed that videos have certain advantages over texts due to their authenticity, novices in particular might be overwhelmed by the amount of simultaneous information in videos and benefit more from texts. With regard to PE teacher education, however, since PE consists in the movement of protagonists and equipment in a relatively expansive space (compared to classroom teaching), using video-based examples might illustrate relevant teaching aspects better than text-based examples – independent of prior knowledge. The present study addresses these questions and investigates to what extent professional knowledge and affective-motivational variables of PE teacher students at the university are differently promoted by corresponding learning environments. To answer the question 136 undergraduate students participated in an experimental pre-intervention post-study, which was conducted in the context of a regular seminar. Student were randomly assigned to a video group, in which they reflected on a 24-minute scripted video-based teaching example, or to a text group, in which they reflected on a 2,600-word text-based teaching example, or to a control group, in which they completed an open-ended planning task (control group).
No significant group differences were present at pretest. However, controlling for the pretest, a significant group effect was identified at posttest. Students in the video group showed significantly higher knowledge than those in the text group or the control group. Regarding affective-motivational variables, a superiority of the video group with respect to interest and enjoyment over the other groups was found. For challenge and anger there were no significant effects.
136 undergraduate students (79% female, average age 24 years) participated in the experimental pre-intervention-post-study, which was conducted in the context of a regular seminar. Initially, prior knowledge was assessed with an open-ended question. In the subsequent intervention, all students first received an identical 15-minute introduction to the pedagogical principles and steps of Teaching Games for Understanding (Holt, Strean, & Bengoechea, 2002). They then worked through the treatment material of the group to which they had previously been randomly assigned. They reflected on either a 24-minute scripted video-based teaching example (video group), or they reflected on a 2,600-word text-based teaching example that based on the video (text group), or completed an open-ended planning task (control group). Finally, knowledge of Teaching Games for Understanding was assessed with nine MCQ items; they asked to identify, with respect to specific instructional objectives, those situations that were appropriate in terms of the approach (alpha = .65). In addition, affective-motivational variables were assessed (interest: alpha = .77; challenge: alpha .66; enjoyment: alpha = .80; anger: alpha = .73).
The present study cannot provide general support for the assumption that teaching examples promote the development of professional knowledge on game-oriented teaching approaches (Howarth, 2010). Nevertheless, a positive effect seems to emerge from video-based teaching examples. Initially, this seems to contradict findings from other domains, indicating that beginners actually benefit more from text-based examples (Syring et al., 2015). It is possible, however, that the advantage of the authenticity of videos is even more important in physical education than in other domains due to the special spatial and material situation and the moving actors. The further findings confirm (partly significantly) the assumption that authentic learning environments promote affective-motivational variables more strongly. The presentation will address limitations of the study as well as conclusions for physical education teacher education.
Díaz-Cueto, M., Hernández-Álvarez, J. L., & Castejón, F. J. (2010). Teaching Games for Understanding to In-Service Physical Education Teachers: Rewards and Barriers Regarding the Changing Model of Teaching Sport. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 29, 378–398. Gentner, D., Loewenstein, J., & Thompson, L. (2003). Learning and transfer: A general role for analogical encoding. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 393–405. Harvey, S., & Jarrett, K. (2014). A review of the game-centred approaches to teaching and coaching literature since 2006. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 19, 278–300. Holt, N. L., Strean, W. B., & Bengoechea, E. G. (2002). Expanding the Teaching Games for Understanding Model: New avenues for future research and practice. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 21, 162–176. Howarth, K. (2010). lntroducing the Teaching Games for Understanding model in teacher education programs. In J. I. Butler & L. L. Griffin (Eds.), More Teaching Games for Understanding: Moving globally (pp. 91–105). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Syring, M., Bohl, T., Kleinknecht, M., Kuntze, S., Rehm, M., & Schneider, J. (2015). Video or text in case-based teacher education? An examination of the effects of different media on cognitive load and motivational-emotional processes in case-based learning. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 18, 667–685.
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