04 SES 08 C, Dealing With Personalisations, Individualisation And Inequalities From An Inclusive Perspective
We shall approach attachment-based education from the perspective of the importance of the Personalized Learning Plan in SEN educational set. What is certain that SEN education needs personalized learning task, with clear steps and with adapting assignment and teaching (Gyarmathy, 2010). Attachment theory has a well-established status quo in psychology, and in the past years has started to take root in pedagogical fields as well (Cozolino 2014). Like many developing countries, Romania has adopted a paradigm shift in SEN set schools from teacher-centered to learner-centered classrooms, particularly through Personalized Learning plans and interventions. In 2009, the National Curriculum was changed, but Curriculum policies are continually changing and debated in Romania. Reforms are made at a political level, but they remain a problem at the practical level. (Nicu 2016)
This paper is based on a Professional Supervision Group work with teachers, teaching assistants, learning mentors, and support assistants from Oradea, Bihor County, Romania. In Romania, SEN education has been changed since 1989, under the communist era supporting disabled pupils was illegal. After the short, but a violent revolution from 1989, Romania adopted equal access for all education approaches at every level (Ives et al., 2007).
In this study, we want to determine how SEN teachers see attachment-based education as a method and could attachment-based education promote inclusion. In Romania Inclusive Educational Centres have a key role in offering access to education for disabled children, but there lays the question, how to give support without exclusion? According to several studies (Thomas 2015; Webber 2017; Bomber & Hughes 2013; Geddes 2006; and Marshall 2014), attachment-based education supports inclusion.
Attachment-based education is defined as a form of teaching where the application of attachment theory in school can improve the well-being of children and therefore their academic performance as well (Bergin & Bergin 2009). Personalized Learning Plan needs persons not algorithms (Spencer 2020) There are few key approaches toward personalized learning, such as Adaptive learning, Individualized learning, Differentiated learning and Competence-based learning. When we are talking about personalized teaching in a SEN set school, we must think outside of the tech world, video-based lessons and digital assignments submitted via tools such as Microsoft Teams and Google Classroom are not suitable for disabled pupils. They need a deeply human relationship rather than a program-guided algorithm or a set of scripts for learning (Spencer 2020).
This study examines how attachment-based education promotes inclusion and how teachers experience attachment-based education related to Personalized learning strategies.. This study was done in various parts of SEN set schools in Bihor and Harghita County, Romania. Mainly Hungarian minority teachers, teaching assistants, learning mentors and support assistants from Oradea, Valea lui Mihai, Salonta and Miercurea Ciuc from Romania took part in it. During the sessions of Supervisor groups, the respondents were interviewed, which were held twice a month via Zoom platform meetings. All participants were volunteers, and a snowball sampling was used, which means that the information of this interview was delivered via contacts received in the project AutiTeam, Together for More Efficient Therapies. In addition, all participating teachers had to have some years teaching experience in SEN set, and at least some of them use Personalized Learning Plans. Together 8 Supervised group discussions were held in 2020 and 2021, and together 18 experts in SEN education participated, from 6 different schools and one Special Centre from Miercurea Ciuc. The topics for the discussion were given by the Supervisor as well as by the researcher and they also told that they would not interfere in the discussion. The topics for the first discussion were: What do you think is attachment-based education? Tell about challenges and areas of development? Themes for the staff members with whom we had more than one Supervised group discussion were: How Personalized learning as term is used in SEN set schools? What are the benefits of attachment-based education related to Personalized learning plans and interventions? Is learning a personal experience? What is the disabled child ready to learn? How do I best help this child learn? Promoting attachment-based education method will help school staff understand and respond to disruptive behaviour as evidence of emotional insecurity? Can attachment-based-education reduce the rate of exclusion? Are SEN pupils just passive recipients of personalized learning or rather active initiators of it? The data has been analysed using content analysis, and preliminary results are opened here.
Expected Outcomes Findings General Attachment-based education related to Personalized Learning Plans was discussed mostly positively. The main benefits were sharing the everyday teaching problems, the regression and development of the SEN pupils. Those who did not have many experiences in attachment-based-education methods talked about barriers: about organizational barriers, lack of facilities and lack of training as well as about digital teaching and their disadvantages regarding one-to-one interventions. Others told that using digital facilities such as Microsoft Teams and Google Classroom destroys the relationship between the educator and disabled pupils. They teach pupils with severe and multiple disabilities and digital access is just not serving well for their development. The role of teachers Different roles and power relations could be detected. Special educators said that attachment-aware practice can help to support disabled children in their schools. SEN teachers point out that personalized learning plans are naturally linked to attachment-based education. Indeed, such connection can really shift the way SEN teachers approach behaviour management and improve the engagement of their students. Teaching assistants, as well as learning mentors, highlighted that SEN schools can play a crucial part in improving the resilience and emotional well-being of disabled children. Children with severe and multiple disabilities who struggle in school will need a key person to be allocated to them – to act as an “additional attachment figure”, therefore it is vital that the key person is adequately trained, resourced and supported to fulfil that role.
Bergin, Christi & Bergin, David. (2009). Attachment in the Classroom. Educational Psychology Review. 21. 141-170. 10.1007/s10648-009-9104-0 Cozolino, L., (2014). Attachment-Based Teaching. Creating a Tribal Classroom, W. W. Norton & Company, New York Gyarmathy, Éva (2010) A tehetséggondozás pszichológiája. Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle. pp. 221-232. ISSN 0025-0279 (Print) 1588-2799 (Online) Newton, R., (2008). The Attachment Connection: Parenting a Secure and Confident Child Using the Science of Attachment Theory, New Harbinger Publications Ives, Bob & Runceanu, L. & Cheney, C.. (2007). The History of Special Education in Romania: Past, Present, and Future tensions. Journal of International Special Needs Education. 10. 5-12. Spencer, J. (2020). Empowered at a Distance: How to Build Student Self-Direction into Remote and Hybrid Learning, Blend Education, Salem Turza M. M., (2019). Bucharest, Europe Cares - Inclusive Quality Education for Children with Disabilities, EUROPE%20CARES_EU%20Initiative%20Proposal_2019.pdf Vasilescu, D., (2001). Oameni asemenea: Persoanele cu handicap din Romania, Editura Compania AltFel, Bucuresti
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