04 SES 10 A, Predicting And Identifying Factors Related To Inclusion In School
Purpose of the study: to determine the specifics of the relationship between the processes of predicting and identifying emotions in children with hearing disorders in preschool and school age.
The issue of identification and recognition of emotional states, human emotions have been being discussed in the scientific community for a long time and in a different context.
Identification of mental states of children with developmental disorders is still poorly understood. The emotional development of children with hearing disorders is mediated by a number of unfavorable factors: impaired verbal communication, delayed speech development, late familiarization with fiction, insufficiently formed skills of identification and differentiation of the emotional manifestations of other people. Late acquaintance with the whole spectrum of people's feelings leads to a depletion of the emotional world of a child and creates difficulties in understanding the states and experiences of other people. Children have trouble in expressing their feelings and emotions. Emotional experience of children is formed and enriched through communication, empathy with others, perception and comprehension of the works of art
Children with hearing impairments feel and experience differently than others. The problem is not in their inner feelings, but in the ability to identify, name, designate them. The perception of external manifestations of emotions and feelings, reflected in facial expressions, pantomimics, gestures, voice, speech intonation, determines the understanding of other people's emotional states. If a child with hearing impairment is familiar with situations in which certain emotions arise, then understanding people’s reactions becomes more successful. Friendly and close relations with others form child's ability to respond to feelings and experiences of the environment.
Successful recognition and identification of mental states can be a determinant in predicting one's own emotional behavior and reactions of other people.
The ability to mentally travel in time and imagine possible future events allows people to anticipate the consequences of decisions made here and now. Scientists have revealed the relationship between emotions and forecasting. It can manifest itself in emotional expectations in the form of premonitions, foresight, and possibly predictions. Characteristic, typical forms of emotional expectations get fixed in the form of emotional properties.
The ability to predict determines the effectiveness and success of socialization of children with disabilities and the maturity of social emotions allows them to socialize successfully. Studies of children with hearing disorders have shown that they keep their forecasts in memory quite well and are able to compare them.
Already in a preschool age, children begin to develop and actively use the ability to anticipate the results of cognitive activity in emotionally significant situations. Small children gradually acquire the ability to imagine future events. They start to develop expectations of certain emotions, and it motivates and determines their behavior. Gradually, they learn to determine the emotional states of other people.
Emotional anticipation of the result appears on the 4th year of child's life as they develop the ability to emotionally anticipate the results of their own and other people’s actions through activation of past experience. Emotionally-anticipatory images of preschoolers can be both constructive, encouraging success, and protective, prompting to avoid failure. Their ability to predict develops, and precisely at the end of the preschool age, children undergo important events in a number of areas, such as self-awareness and reasoning about mental states that aid future-oriented thinking. The ability of a child to recognize and designate emotional states is one of the most important conditions for the adequate development of the affective-emotional sphere, as well as a necessary prerequisite for verbalization of one’s own experiences.
The methods we used included: 1. Identification of mental states was carried out using the "Emotional faces" technique (N. Y. Semago). Two series of images of emotional facial expression (anger, sadness, joy, obvious joy, fear, anger, affability, shame and guilt, resentment, surprise) were used as a stimulus material for children. 2. Peculiarities of forecasting activity were studied using the “Try-to-Guess” technique (developed by L.I. Peresleni and V.L. Podobed), which helps to identify the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of forecasting activity and determine informative indicators for assessing its features in children with and without developmental disorders. 3. We studied the success of children's interaction with other people using the diagnosis of children's communicative skills (Methodology for determining the level of development of the communicative skills of preschoolers (N.E. Veraksa): we studied how children understand the tasks presented to them by adults in various interaction situations; how well they understand the states of peers and their ideas about the ways of expressing their own attitude towards adults and peers (using the methodology "Scale of emotional distress and atypical behavior" (A.M. Kazmin, N.A. Konovko, O.G. Salnikova, E.K. Tupitsina, E.V. Fedina). Communicative skills were determined through a number of indicators: 1. child's understanding of the tasks presented by adults in various situations of interaction; 2. child's understanding of the state of peers; 3. ideas of the ways of expressing one's attitude towards an adult; 4. child's ideas of the ways of expressing one’s attitude towards a peer. Emotional deviations were determined through the subscales "anxiety", "depression", while behavioral deviations – through the subscales "maladaptive behavior", "hyperactivity / disinhibition", "detachment".
The structure of forecasting activity of children with normotypical development and hearing disorders has a common tendency in dynamics (loss of secondary variables) and specific signs which manifest themselves in the level of complexity and maturity of the structure; Having a single foundation - subjective experience - the processes of identification and forecasting are interrelated only in a preschool age. As children grow older, their relationship is mediated by additional variables (emotional well-being and communication skills); Children with hearing disorders have a less complex structure of correlations between forecasting and identification of mental states against a background of emotional well-being and communication skills. The research was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research under research project No. 19-013-00251 “Prediction as a resource for socialization of children with disabilities: the structural-functional model”. This paper has been supported by the Kazan Federal University Strategic Academic Leadership Program.
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